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Mining bitcoin adalah hafezin

Setelah kita memiliki salinan lengkap rantai blok blockchain , maka kita bisa mulai membangun blok. Namun, kita pun harus bisa memastikan bahwa semua transaksi di dalam blok itu adalah valid. Setelah kita memvalidasi semua transaksi pada calon blok tadi, selanjutnya adalah mencari nonce agar bisa membuat blok tersebut menjadi valid.

Langkah disini adalah langkah yang paling sulit yang dihadapi oleh para penambang. Ini adalah kesulitan kedua yang dihadapi. Jadi, jika kita menemukan sebuah blok baru, tidak ada jaminan bahwa blok itu akan bisa menjadi bagian dari konsensus blockchain. Penambang membutuhkan keberuntungan disini. Berharap agar penambang lain menerima usulan blok tersebut.

Sehingga kita bisa mulai menambang diatas blok tersebut. Jadi bukan pada blok penambang lain. Jika ternyata penambang lain menerima blok kita sebagai blok yang valid, maka inilah saat yang membuat penambang tersenyum puas setelah melakukan pekerjaan beratnya. Selain itu, jika beberapa transaksi di dalam blok itu dicantumkan biaya transaksi, penambang pun bisa mengumpulkan semua biaya transaksi tersebut.

Nah, keenam hal tersebut adalah hal yang harus dikerjakan oleh para penambang. Jadi jelas ya, bahwa menambang itu bukan dimaknai seperti pada mencari Bitcoin di faucet, giveaway atau yang lain. Namun, menambang disini ya artinya menggunakan alat tertentu, yang dalam prosesnya mengerjakan keenam hal tersebut diatas.

Berfungsi untuk membantu jaringan Bitcoin sebagai sebuah fungsi yang paling penting agar sistem Bitcoin dan Blockchain bisa terus berjalan dan ada. Sehingga penambang, adalah hal utama yang akan menjalankan semua protokol Bitcoin.

Tugas lainnya untuk saling berlomba mencari blok baru dan memperoleh keuntungan. Selain itu, terkait juga dengan insentif reward blok yang akan diterima.

Makanya diibaratkan sebagai sebuah perlombaan untuk mencari dan menemukan blok baru. Dan insentif yang diberikan itu, digunakan sebagai stimulus para penambang dalam melakukan pekerjaannya. Lalu bagaimana bisa menemukan blok yang valid?

Yang perlu kita pahami, bahwa di setiap blok header, akan menunjuk ke header blok sebelumnya. Dan di dalam setiap blok, akan terdapat merkle tree dari semua transaksi yang ada di dalam blok itu.

Penambang, terlebih dahulu mengkompilasi satu set transaksi yang valid, yang dimiliki dari pool pending transaction pool transaksi tertunda atau yang biasa disebut dengan mempool , kemudian di masukkan kedalam merkle tree. Nah, dalam hal ini, seorang penambang bisa memasukkan banyak transaksi, hingga keseluruhannya mencapai total kurang dari 1megabyte batas ukuran blok yang masih berlaku saat ini. Kemudian, membuat header blok yang menunjukkan blok sebelumnya.

Pada header blok ini, ada ruang nonce berukuran 32 bit. Sehingga penambang bisa mencoba nonce ini berkali-kali. Tujuannya untuk mencari satu yang bisa menyebabkan hash blok itu bisa berada di bawah target. Biasanya untuk memulai mencoba nonce tersebut, bisa diawali dengan nilai nonce 0. Lalu penambang pun bisa mencoba secara berturut-turut dengan kenaikan angka tersebut sampai berhasil mencari nonce yang akan bisa membuat blok menjadi valid.

Umumnya penambang akan mencoba setiap kemungkinan nilai dari bit 32 untuk nonce tersebut. Namun mungkin juga tidak ada satupun yang bisa menghasilkan hash yang valid. Nah, pada kasuistis seperti ini, biasanya penambang akan membuat sebuah perubahan. Perubahan itu adalah perubahan pada transaksi Coinbase, yang memungkinkan penambang untuk merubah nilai dari 32 bit. Karena ada sebuah nonce tambahan dalam transaksi coinbase.

Setelah mengubah nonce tambahan di transaksi coinbase tadi, penambang bisa mulai mencari lagi nonce di header blok. Jika telah melakukan perubahan nonce dalam transaksi coinbase, maka seluruh merkle tree juga harus berubah. Karena perubahan nonce tersebut akan menyebar ke semua jalur di merkle tree.

Sehingga, bisa dikatakan pengubahan nonce tambahan tersebut, sifatnya seolah-olah lebih sulit daripada mengubah nonce di header bloknya. Bisa jadi juga, ketika sudah selesai mengubah nonce di header blok, mereka pun belum bisa menemukan blok yang valid. Itulah mengapa justru pengubahan nonce tambahan ini justru lebih sulit. Meskipun bisa dilakukan sebagai jalan alternatif, jika belum bisa menemukan kemungkinan nilai di 32 bit tadi.

Walaupun sulit dan sebagian besar mungkin tidak akan berhasil, namun jika penambang berusaha untuk terus mencoba, mungkin akan bisa menemukan sebuah kombinasi yang tepat dari nonce tambahan di transaksi coinbase itu. Sehingga nonce di header blok bisa menghasilkan hash yang tepat dibawah target. Kalau penambang berhasil menemukan, penambang itu bisa secepatnya untuk mengumumkan, dan berharap bisa diterima untuk mendapat reward. Tidak mungkin penambang akan bekerja pada blok yang sama persis.

Karena blok satu dengan yang lain, tentu di dalamnya akan terdapat urutan transaksi yang berbeda. Jadi tentu saja puzzle nya juga tidak sama. Dan yang paling utama, jika ada dua penambang yang bekerja pada blok yang transaksinya identik sekalipun, bloknya akan tetap berbeda. Dalam transaksi coinbase, penambang akan menentukan alamat mereka sendiri di dalam transaksi coinbase. Alamat ini yang akan membuat perubahan hingga sampai ke akar merkle tree. Sehingga bisa dipastikan bahwa tidak ada dua penambang yang sedang mengerjakan puzzle yang sama.

Kecuali jika mereka berbagi sharing public key. Berbagi atau sharing public key ini, dalam pertambangan bisa dilakukan jika kedua penambang tersebut adalah bagian dari pool mining yang sama. Sehingga antara keduanya akan bisa berkomunikasi satu sama lain, terkait apakah mereka termasuk nonce yang berbeda di transaksi coinbase tersebut. Tujuannya juga untuk menghindari duplikasi pengerjaan. Nah pada jawaban nomer 1 tentang target, ini akan berkaitan dengan tingkat kesulitan.

Bagaimana tingkat kesulitan untuk menemukan blok yang valid? Yang harus kita ingat adalah bahwa penambang akan berusaha untuk mendapatkan yang diiginkan. Yakni nilai hash harus lebih rendah dari target. Sementara target ini adalah bit pada base Jadi target ini akan semakin rendah nilainya, sehingga tingkat kesulitannya juga akan bertambah. Sampai di sini jelas ya? Mari kita lanjutkan kembali secara lebih detail.

Tingkat kesulitan akan berubah setiap mencapai blok. Kisaran waktunya kurang lebih selama 2 minggu. Perubahan tingkat kesulitan, disesuaikan dari seberapa efisien para penambang selama periode blok sebelumnya. Jadi seperti ini perhitungan tingkat kesulitan dalam menambang Bitcoin:.

Sehingga blok yang akan diciptakan nantinya akan membutuhkan waktu kurang lebih 2 minggu. Yaitu dalam rata-rata waktu 10 menit.

Setiap penambang Bitcoin akan menghitung tingkat kesulitan tersebut. Dan hanya akan menerima blok yang memenuhi kriteria di tingkat kesulitan yang bisa mereka hitung. Penambang yang berada di cabang berbeda, mungkin tidak menghitung nilai kesulitan yang sama. Namun pada dasarnya setiap penambang di penambangan diatas blok yang sama akan menyetujui tingkat kesulitannya. Sehingga memungkinkan pencapaian konsensus di dalam jaringan. Tingkat kesulitan pertambangan Bitcoin akan terus meningkat.

Ada beberapa faktor misalnya berapa banyak penambang baru yang bergabung. Sehingga bisa mempengaruhi nilai tukar Bitcoin pada saat itu. Karena penambang yang baru bergabung banyak, dan tingkat pertambangan semakin ditunjang dengan munculnya perangkat-perangkat yang lebih efisien, maka blok akan bisa ditemukan dengan lebih cepat.

Sehingga tingkat kesulitan pun jadi meningkat. Maka waktu yang dibutuhkan akan selalu berkisar rata-rata dalam 10 menit untuk menemukan dan menciptakan blok baru.

Jika hal ini terjadi, maka tingkat kesulitan akan turun. Jadi, berbagai kondisi rata-rata penciptaan blok baru dalam tempo 10 menit tersebut, akan mempengaruhi apakah nanti tingkat kesulitan akan naik atau turun. Misalnya, jika rata-rata penciptaan blok dalam 2 minggu lebih cepat atau lebih kecil dari 10 menit, maka tingkat kesulitan akan bertambah dan menyesuaikan.

Namun jika rata-rata lebih besar dari 10 menit, maka tingkat kesulitan akan turun. Seperti yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya, bahwa untuk melakukan pertambangan Bitcoin, dibutuhkan sebuah perangkat keras untuk melakukan perhitungan atau komputasi dalam memecahkan puzzle. Seiring dengan perkembangan jaman, dan tingkat kesulitan yang makin bertambah, daya komputasi pun makin ditunjang juga dengan perkembangan perangkat keras ini. Pengkalkulasian dalam pertambangan menggunakan fungsi hash SHA Pada saat Bitcoin diciptakan oleh Satoshi Nakamoto, memilih menggunakan SHA, tentu saja karena fungsi hash yang paling bagus dan bisa digunakan saat itu adalah SHA ini.

Sementara pada SHA terdapat bit. Setiap fungsinya bisa beroperasi pada 32 bit kata. Sehingga bisa mengakomodir hardware 32 bit. Angka ini berasal dari bit state dan output. Pada perkembangan selanjutnya, telah muncul family SHA Namun masih belum digunakan di dalam Bitcoin.

Para penambang, harus bisa menghitung fungsi ini secepat mungkin. Sehingga penambang akan saling berlomba satu sama lain. Semakin cepat, maka semakin banyak pula keuntungan yang bisa mereka peroleh. Nah, sekarang mari kita lihat beberapa jenis perangkat pertambangan yang bisa digunakan untuk menambang Bitcoin.

Saat pertama kali Bitcoin mulai dijalankan, perangkat yang digunakan bisa dilakukan hanya dengan menggunakan CPU pada komputer biasa. Tentu saja, hal itu karena tingkat kesulitan pada saat itu juga masih rendah bukan. Jadi pertambangan menggunakan CPU ini dianggap sebagai generasi pertama perangkat pertambangan Bitcoin. Pada saat itu, bisa dikatakan para penambang hanya mencari nonce lebih secara linier dengan SHA Dan memeriksa selanjutnya, jika telah menghasilkan sebuah blok yang valid.

Yang menjadi pertanyaan, seberapa cepat jika pertambangan Bitcoin dilakukan dengan CPU? Dan jika dibandingkan pada tingkat kesulitan yang ada pada saat ini, mungkin akan membutuhkan beberapa ribu tahun untuk bisa menemukan blok yang valid. Sehingga pertambangan dengan CPU ini benar-benar sudah menjadi cukup sulit. Pertambangan dengan menggunakan CPU, tidak lagi menguntungkan pada masa sekarang. Bagi orang-orang yang pernah melakukan pertambangan menggunakan CPU, pastinya akan merasa kecewa, karena mereka juga belum mengetahui secara pasti bagaimana cara kerja Bitcoin.

Generasi kedua selanjutnya, adalah penambang mulai menggunakan GPU. Sebuah kartu grafis yang hampir digunakan di semua jenis komputer dewasa ini. GPU ini bisa menghasilkan paralelisme yang tinggi, dan bisa cukup berguna dalam hal pertambangan Bitcoin. Pertambangan Bitcoin bisa di paralelkan, sehingga penambang juga bisa mencoba melakukan hashing pada waktu yang sama dengan nonce yang berbeda.

Ketika OpenCL mulai dirilis di tahun , memungkinkan untuk menjalankan berbagai jenis perhitungan yang lebih cepat pada sebuah kartu grafis. Karena hal ini jugalah yang pada akhirnya membuka peluang untuk bisa melakukan pertambangan Bitcoin melalui GPU. Sebuah kartu grafis mempunyai properti yang bisa dibilang cukup atraktif. Mudah untuk digunakan, bahkan orang yang masih amatir pun akan mudah melakukan setting awal kartu grafis ini. Membeli kartu grafis pun juga cukup mudah dicari di pasaran.

Dan satu manfaat utamanya adalah, kartu grafis juga bagus untuk pertambangan Bitcoin. Karena kartu grafis bisa bekerja secara paralel, yang bisa digunakan sebagai simultan perhitungan di SHA Bahkan, beberapa jenis GPU juga telah memiliki instruksi khusus untuk bisa melakukan operasi yang cukup berguna di SHA Dan satu lagi yang menarik, karena kebanyakan kartu grafis bisa di overclocked, meski juga cukup beresiko jika terlalu dipaksakan.

Kesalahan pun bisa terjadi saat melakukan perhitungan SHA menggunakan overclocked ini. Pertambangan dengan GPU ini bisa dimodifikasi sedemikian rupa. Sehingga penambang bisa membuat dan merancang beberapa GPU dalam satu motherboard. Bahkan banyak juga para penambang yang membuat rancangan khusus serupa, dengan menggunakan banyak GPU yang digabungkan dalam satu set motherboard. Sehingga keseluruh GPU itu pun bisa digunakan bersama-sama dalam menambang Bitcoin.

Salah satu contoh perakitan GPU ini bisa dibaca disini: GPU ada kelebihan, tentu juga ada kekurangan. GPU membutuhkan daya yang besar. Sehingga konsumsi listrikpun juga menjadi besar. Disamping itu, biaya untuk merangkai GPU ini juga lumayan mahal, terlebih jika berniat untuk menggunakan kartu grafis yang banyak.

Dan pendingin pun banyak yang tidak terjelaskan spesifikasi yang baik untuk menunjang kinerja GPU ini. FPGA adalah sebuah IC digital yang banyak dipakai untuk mengimplementasikan rangkaian-rangkaian digital.

Yakni bertujuan untuk bisa melakukan pertambangan Bitcoin semaksimal mungkin. Pada chip FPGA ini, memungkinkan penggunanya untuk menyesuaikan dan mengatur ulang konfigurasinya. Pada dasarnya FPGA memang bisa menawarkan kinerja yang lebih baik dari kartu grafis. Terlebih dengan keleluasaan untuk mengkonfigurasi setelannya. Selain itu FPGA juga ada pendingin yang bisa memudahkan proses kerjanya.

Oleh karena itu, banyak yang menganggap penggunaan FPGA pun masih kurang efektif. Karena peningkatannya pun dirasa hanya sedikit jika dibandingkan dengan GPU. Selain itu ada beberapa kelemahan juga di FPGA. Kelemahannya adalah banyak yang mengalami kerusakan saat digunakan untuk pertambangan Bitcoin. FPGA dalam pertambangan Bitcoin pun tidak berlangsung lama. Hanya beberapa bulan saja. Jauh lebih lama pada GPU yang saat itu bisa mencapai waktu hingga 1 tahun.

Pada masa sekarang ini, pertambangan telah banyak didominasi oleh ASIC. ASIC adalah sebuah chip khusus untuk mengerjakan pekerjaan tertentu. Ada banyak vendor besar yang menjual kepada konsumen dengan berbagai jenis dan type. Dari berbagai banyak type tersebut, ada berbagai tingkat besaran komputasi, dan besaran daya yang dikonsumsinya.

Sehingga penambang pun bisa memiliki masing-masing type Asic tersebut. Proses perancangan Asic membutuhkan keahlian dan keunggulan produk yang bisa bertahan lama. Meski begituk, Asic untuk pertambangan Bitcoin ini memang didesain dan diciptakan dengan cepat.

Sejumlah analis menyatakan bahwa vendor asic bahkan memproduksi asic tercepat dalam sejarah sirkuit terpadu. Terutama pada penanganan masalahnya saat produk berada di tangan konsumen. Sebagian besar produk Asic di generasi pertama, ada banyak bug dan sebagian besar juga tidak memberikan angka dan kinerja yang semestinya.

Namun kemudian Asic telah menjadi yang paling handal di masa sekarang. Sampai pada tahun , jangka masa Asic cukup pendek karena telah meningkat cukup pesat yang meningkatkan hash rate jaringan Bitcoin. Masa pertumbuhan Asic di era pertama berlangsung dalam enam bulan. Selama masa ini, sebagian besar keuntungan yang telah dibuat ada di masa pertama. Seringkai penambang bisa membuat setengah dari keuntungan yang diharapkan pada jangka hidup Asic dalam enam minggu pertama penggunaannya.

Jadi dalam hal ini, kecepatan pengiriman produk dari vendor ke tangan konsumen menjadi faktor yang penting untuk menghasilkan keuntungan dalam pertambangan. Meskipun ada ketidakmatangan dalam proses produksi Asic, pelanggan sering mengalami hambatan dalam terlambatnya pengiriman produk. Sehingga seringkali datang terlambat dan hampir usang saat produk Asic tersebut diterima di tangan konsumen. Sementara, tingkat pertumbuhan daya hash Bitcoin telah stabis. Namun di era awal akan nampak banyaknya pelanggan yang merasa frustasi dan banyak yang berasumsi telah ditipu oleh vendor.

Dalam sejarah pertambangan Bitcoin, ekonomi dalam pertambangannya masih belum menguntungkan bagi penambang kecil untuk bisa melakukan pertambangan. Terlebih untuk bisa membeli peralatan pertambangan dan memulai mendapat keuntungan darinya. Nyatanya, banyak orang yang telah melakukan order pembelian perangkat pertambangan ini akan kehilangan uang, jika didasarkan kalkulasi yang mereka buat pada saat memutuskan order pembelian tersebut. Selain itu, pertambangan Bitcoin pun seolah menjadi sebuah pertaruhan terkait apakah harga Bitcoin nantinya akan naik atau tidak.

Bagi banyak penambang, meskipun mereka bisa membuat banyak keuntungan dari menambang Bitcoin, akan lebih baik jika mereka baru saja mengambil keuntungan tersebut untuk segera membeli peralatan pertambangan, lalu diinvestasikan dalam Bitcoin, lalu menjualnya untuk memperoleh keuntungan.

Meski para penambang bisa segera memesan perangkat pertambangan, namun hal itu tidak terlalu bagus jika mereka belum mengetahui secara detail tentang Bitcoin dan cryptocurrency. Saat ini, kebanyakan produk Asic telah dijual secara komersial. Hampir tidak mungkin produk-produk tersebut bisa terbeli dari hasil pertambangan, karena pasti akan ada biaya listrik dan juga kebutuhan daya untuk pendinginnya. Bisa di katakan, saat ini pertambangan Bitcoin telah pindah dari pertambangan individu menjadi sentral pertambangan besar dan profesional.

Perusahaan-perusahaan besar pertambangan Bitcoin ini sebagian besar ini beroperasi tidak secara terbuka, untuk melindungi mereka dan mempertahankannya secara kompetitif. Ada tiga hal yang menjadi faktor untuk mendirikan sebuah pusat pertambangan Bitcoin. Tiga hal penting tersebut adalah iklim, biaya listrik, dan kecepatan jaringan. Sehingga secara khusus, tentu akan lebih baik jika pertambangan itu dilakukan di iklim yang digin agar bisa menekan biaya konsumsi listrik untuk pendingin.

Masalah sistem pendingin ini tentu menjadi tantangan tersendiri pada pertambangan Bitcoin. Sementara, tentu banyak yang berharap agar biaya listrik yang murah. Dan juga koneksi jaringan yang cepat agar bisa terhubung ke node lain di jaringan Bitcoin lebih cepat pula. Di dalam pertambangan Bitcoin telah terjadi evolusi yang lambat. Sementara hal ini pun sama terjadi evolusi dalam pertambangan emas. Di dalam evolusi pertambangan emas, dimulai dengan pertambangan individu-individu yang menggunakan panci untuk mendulang emas.

Beralih kemudian menggunakan kotak-kotak yang menggunakan pintu air, dan dilanjutkan dengan menggunakan peledak di lereng-lereng bukit oleh kelompok-kelompok penambang emas. Hingga kemudian mulai terjadi penambangan emas modern yang melakukan penambangan raksasa dan telah membuat lubang besar di muka bumi. Berdasarkan dua evolusi pertambangan tersebut, ada penurunan peran secara individu yang sama-sama menurun dari waktu ke waktu. Beralih pada dominasi perusahaan besar untuk mengeruk keuntungan secara lebih besar.

Namun, ada pola lain yang menunjukkan sebagian besar keuntungan tersebut didapat dari pihak-pihak penjual peralatan penambangan. Apa yang akan terjadi pada pertambangan Bitcoin di masa depan? Saat ini pertambangan Asic telah menjadi satu-satunya cara yang realistis untuk bisa melakukan pertambangan dan memperoleh keuntungan.

Namun, pertambangan dengan Asic juga telah berlaku tidak ramah, terutama pada para penambang kecil. Jika ada sebuah pertanyaan yang mempertanyakan, lalu apa gunanya desentralisasi jika pada akhirnya setiap individu pun pada akhirnya tersingkir? Apakah memungkinkan kembali kepada sebuah yang yang memungkinkan menggabungkan keduanya? Apakah benar lahirnya pertambangan Asic dan munculnya pusat-pusat pertambangan besar ini telah melanggar visi asli dari Bitcoin?

Di dalam cryptocurrency, bisa jadi ada sebuah siklus yang mungkin berulang. Dan hal tersebut telah bisa dilihat kecenderungannya dengan kemunculan Altcoin. Dimana sebuah cryptocurrency lain selain Bitcoin muncul dan masih terbebas dari pihak investor besar. Namun tentu saja dengan tingkat permulaan dan harga yang masih jauh relatif lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan Bitcoin saat ini. Ada sebuah kondisi yang bisa dimanfaatkan ketika Asic masih belum tersedia pada Altcoin baru.

Namun hal itu tentu juga akan beresiko, tentang apakah altcoin baru tersebut akan berhasil atau tidak nantinya. Munculnya pusat pertambangan besar secara profesional membuat dominasi pertambangan Bitcoin. Hal ini seakan sama persis dengan pertambangan emas. Terutama, bagaimana peran perusahaan besar di pertambangan emas yang telah banyak menimbulkan kerusakan lingkungan.

Sementara di Bitcoin, mungkin tidak akan menjadi sebesar itu sebagai dampaknya. Namun, pertambangan Bitcoin juga membutuhkan energi yang besar.

Secara tidak langsung, akan juga berdampak bagi mata uang, dan juga lingkungan. Ada sebuah hukum fisika yang dikenal dengan prinsip Landauer, oleh Ralph Landauer di tahun Pada hukum fisika itu menyatakan bahwa setiap komputasi non-reversible searah-tidak dapat dibalik akan membutuhkan sejumlah minimum energi.

Logikanya, setiap komputasi secara irreversible dianggap dapat menghilangnya sebuah informasi. Terutama, di dalam prinsip hukum fisika itu, menyatakan bahwa setiap bit akan mengkonsumsi minimal kT In 2 joules. Dimana K adalah konstan Boltzmann, atau kurang lebih 1. Disitu, T adalah temperatur sirkuit dalam ukuran Kelvin, dan In 2 adalah algoritma biasa dari 2, atau kurang lebih bernilai 0. Jumlah kecil ini adalah jumlah energi per bit.

Dari hukum fisika ini, menjelaskan bahwa sebuah komputasi, akan membutuhkan energi yang bisa dihitung tiap bit. Sedangkan SHA, ada yang menganggap bukanlah sebuah komputasi reversible. Dijelaskan dalam hukum fisika diatas, bahwa setiap komputasi yang non-reversible akan membutuhkan energi, dan SHA digunakan sebagai dasar pertambangan Bitcoin. Sehingga artinya, komputasi pertambangan Bitcoin juga membutuhkan energi. Pertambangan Bitcoin, tidak bisa memungkiri akan memakan konsumsi energi. Meskipun, jumlah energi yang digunakan masih jauh dari jumlah keseluruhan energi listrik yang digunakan di dunia saat ini.

Namun kenyataannya adalah pertambangan Bitcoin memang membutuhkan energi listrik. Pada perangkat pertambangan tentu perlu diproduksi. Baik saat masih berupa bahan baku fisiknya, lalu mengubahnya menjadi perangkat pertambangan Asic.

Dan dari proses tersebut juga akan membutuhkan energi. Sedangkan untuk pengiriman produk jadi perangkat Asic kepada konsumen, juga memakan energi dalam pengirimannya. Lalu, berlanjut lagi setelah perangkat tersebut digunakan untuk pertambangan Bitcoin, komputasi perangkatnya juga akan memakan energi.

Dari tingkat konsumsi energy yang telah berlangsung di pertambangan Bitcoin saat ini, banyak harapan yang akan bisa menurunkan tingkat konsumsi energi. Terutama pada proses pertambangan Bitcoin. Mari kita lihat lebih jauh tingkat konsumsi energi dalam Bitcoin. Seperti yang telah dijelaskan di atas, bahwa ketika pertambangan Bitcoin dilakukan akan mengkonsumsi listrik, yakni listrik.

Begitupun halnya ketika menggunakan perangkat Asic. Pada perkembangan perangkat pertambangan, bisa dibilang ada penurunan dan efektifitas penggunaan energi listrik. Namun ketika Asic masuk, meski pada akhirnya ada perkembangan perangkat Asic yang memungkinkan untuk mengkonsumsi listrik lebih rendah, namun bisa dikatakan, karena Asic jugalah hash rate di jaringan Bitcoin meningkat pesat.

Dan hal itu juga berimplikasi pada peningkatan konsumsi listrik untuk pertambangan Bitcoin. Ada sebuah ulasan hasil penelitian yang pernah dilakukan oleh Sebastian Deetman tentang daya konsumsi listrik pertambangan Bitcoin. Dan juga relasinya terhadap dampak lingkungan yang bisa ditimbulkan. Ulasan tersebut bisa dibaca selengkapnya di sini:. Daya Konsumsi Listrik Jaringan Bitcoin. Bagi Seorang penambang, tentu haruslah bisa mengkalkulasikan berapa daya listrik yang ada pada perangkat pertambangannya.

Sekaligus, juga menghitung biaya listrik yang akan dibutuhkan. Pada bulan Maret lalu, tarif listrik di Indonesia turun, meski sedikit. Kurang lebih tarif listrik pada bulan Maret lalu sebagai berikut:. Untuk menghitungnya, kita bisa menggunakan rumus berikut: Jadi pada pemakaian Antminer jika bekerja penuh dalam 1 bulan non stop, maka akan membutuhkan daya berikut:.

Tentu saja, jumlah tersebut hanya dihitung dari besaran pemakaian listrik pada perangkat Asic di Antminer S7 saja. Masih belum termasuk perhitungan biaya listrik PC atau laptop yang digunakan, atau juga pendingin tambahan yang akan digunakan jika diperlukan. Begitu pula dengan biaya koneksi yang dipakai untuk menghubungkan perangkat pada jaringan Bitcoin.

Jika kita mencoba mengkalkulasi lagi besaran jumlah Bitcoin yang bisa dihasilkan, kita bisa juga melakukan perhitungan tersebut, begini cara menghitungnya:. HashRate Asic Antminer S7: Data tersebut kita masukkan ke kalkulator mining untuk menghitung kisaran berapa yang bisa di dapat dalam melakukan pertambangan. Hasilnya adalah sebagai berikut:. Anda bisa mencoba penghitungan dengan memasukkan data informasi diatas pada kalkulator mining dibawah ini:.

Dari contoh percobaan penghitungan biaya listrik dan kisaran hasil pertambangan di atas, kita bisa menilai bahwa besaran daya listrik juga mempengaruhi juga pola pertambangan, dan juga pada hasil pertambangan yang bisa didapatkan. Dalam satu bulan pemakaian perangkat secara nonstop, antara hasil yang didapat dengan biaya listriknya juga tidak terlalu besar perbedaannya. Tentu saja, hal itu sesuai dengan tarif listrik yang ada di Indonesia. Keuntungan secara bersih akan bisa diperoleh, jika telah melakukan pertambangan kurang lebih selama 7 bulan, itupun baru bisa menutupi untuk biaya pembelian perangkatnya.

Sementara, dalam rentang waktu 7 bulan tersebut, penambang juga tidak mengetahui apa yang akan terjadi. Misalkan tentang adanya kerusakan perangkat, harga Bitcoin yang turun, Biaya listrik yang mungkin naik di 2 bulan ke depan, atau hal lainnya lagi.

Pendingin ini dianggap sebagai sebuah komponen penting dalam pertambangan Bitcoin. Dan dalam prakteknya juga akan memakan energi listrik.

Jika tidak menggunakannya, maka bisa dipastikan akan mengakibatkan kerusakan pada perangkat pertambangan yang digunakan. Namun jika pertambangan Bitcoin dilakukan dalam ukuran yang kecil, mungkin biaya untuk pendingin ini juga kecil dan biasanya dianggap remeh.

Berbeda halnya jika pertambangan itu dilakukan dalam ukuran besar seperti pusat pertambangan Bitcoin besar secara profesional. Pendingin ini cukup berpengaruh dan akan memakan biaya yang besar juga atas daya konsumsi listriknya. Hal pertama yang perlu kita ingat, bahwa dalam pertambangan Bitcoin, dilakukan dengan proses random acak.

Penambang tidak akan pernah bisa tahu, kapan dirinya akan bisa menemukan blok berikutnya. Jika penambang tidak bisa menemukan blok berikutnya, maka penambang pun tidak mendapat apa-apa.

Jika seorang penambang melihat pada distribusi blok, dan ingin melihat berapa blok yang ingin dan bisa ditemukan di tahun pertama, maka akan ada varian yang tinggi.

Sementara jumlah blok yang mungkin bisa ditemukan juga rendah. Sehingga, jika kita membayangkan sebagai seorang penambang kecil. Kemungkinan-kemungkinan akan hal tersebut seakan membuat penambang kecil menjadi tidak punya banyak pilihan tersedia.

Berawal dari banyaknya kesulitan yang dihadapi oleh para penambang kecil, sekaligus dengan beragam resiko yang dihadapi, lalu banyak diantara mereka yang kemudian saling bekerja sama dan membentuk sebuah perusahaan asuransi untuk meringankan resiko tersebut. Awalnya sebuah mining pool terbentuk karena pola kerjasama tersebut.

Sehingga sekelompok penambang bergabung bersama dan membentuk sebuah pool yang berfungsi untuk bisa melakukan penambangan Bitcoin secara bersama-sama. Dengan menentukan satu penerima coinbase yang telah ditunjuk sebelumnya. Penerima itu, disebut dengan istilah Pool Manager. Jadi, dengan penambangan secara bersama ini, tidak perduli siapa yang menemukan sebuah blok, manager pool itulah yang nantinya akan menerima imbalan reward blok.

The purpose of this paper is to present an interview granted by Tyler to the first author of this paper in The present interview may have been the only one given to an Ibero-American academician, and one of the very few in which Tyler spoke openly about what he thought of the fierce criticism launched by reconceptualists against his curriculum rationale.

Full Text Available Abstract: Ralph as a churchman possesses all the needs of a normal man, such as the pursuit of power, wealth and love, and his track of life is characterized by the prolonged and fierce conflict between ambition and love. Rather Charon is observed to have large surface areas free of craters, and a northern polar region that is much redder than its surroundings. Protopapa, Silvia; Grundy, W. Alan; Weaver, Harold A. Previous analysis of band depths, equivalent widths, and principal components have permitted qualitative analysis of the physical state of Pluto's surface Grundy et al.

These maps quantify the spatial distribution of both the absolute abundances and textural properties of the volatiles methane and nitrogen ices and non volatiles water ice and tholin. Substantial reservoirs of methane and nitrogen ices cover the substratum which, in the absence of volatiles, reveals the presence of water ice, as expected given Pluto's size and temperature.

We identify large scale latitudinal variations of methane and nitrogen ices which can help setting constraints to volatile transport models. To the north, by about 55 deg latitude, the nitrogen abundance smoothly tapers off to an expansive polar plain of predominantly methane ice. This transition well correlates with expectations of vigorous spring sublimation after a long polar winter. Continuous illumination northward of 75 deg over the past twenty years, and northward of 55 deg over the past ten years, seems to have sublimated the most volatile nitrogen into the atmosphere, with the best chance for redeposition occurring at points southward.

This loss of surface nitrogen appears to have created the polar bald spot seen in our maps and also predicted by Hansen and Paige Regions that stands out for composition with respect to the latitudinal pattern described above are also going to be discussed. An example is given by informally named Sputnik Planum, where the physical properties of methane and nitrogen are suggestive of the presence of a.

Ralph Alger Bagnold became a Fellow of the Royal Society and one of the founders of modern geomorphology despite having no formal academic affiliation, no cadre of students or postdocs under his command, no steady financial support, and no scientific training beyond a second-class honors degree in engineering.

What he did have, and used to great effect, were a deep curiosity about natural phenomena, a powerful physical intellect, a talent for clever experimentation, extensive opportunities to observe geomorphic processes at work in the field, and - perhaps most important of all - the time and freedom to focus his energies on significant scientific challenges.

A hallmark of Bagnold's work is the artful compromise between the goal of simple, general, physical laws describing natural phenomena, and the practical necessity for observational empiricisms to account for the real-world complexities that cannot be incorporated explicitly into such simple laws.

Efforts to find these sorts of artful compromises continue to the present day. Typically, both in Bagnold's work and in present-day geomorphology, one seeks mathematical process laws whose form embodies the "pure physics" of the problem, and whose coefficients subsume the inevitable observational empiricisms.

Present-day geomorphologists have an array of new tools that open our eyes to temporal and spatial scales that were invisible to Bagnold and his contemporaries.

These observations, in turn, have yielded new surprises and challenges, sometimes confounding our intuition about how geomorphic systems "should" behave. One surprise has been that decadal-scale erosion rates, as reflected in stream sediment loads and reservoir sedimentation rates, often differ from longer-term erosion rates by large multiples.

In some agricultural landscapes, modern-day erosion rates greatly exceed the long-term background rate, as one might intuitively expect. In other landscapes, however, contemporary erosion rates can be a small. We present compositional maps of Pluto defining the spatial distribution of the abundance and textural properties of the volatiles methane and nitrogen ices and non-volatiles water ice and tholin.

Our analysis focuses mainly on the large scale latitudinal variations of methane and nitrogen ices and aims at setting observational constraints to volatile transport models. Our findings are consistent with expectations of vigorous spring sublimation after a long polar winter.

The latitudinal pattern is broken by Sputnik Planum, a large depository of volatiles, with nitrogen playing the most important role. The physical properties of methane and nitrogen in this region are sugg Specifically, we find three latitudinal bands: We demonstrate that the distribution of volatiles across these surface units can be explained by differences in insolation over the past few decades.

The latitudinal pattern is broken by Sputnik Planitia, a large reservoir of volatiles, with nitrogen playing the most important role. The physical properties of methane and nitrogen in this region are suggestive of the presence of a cold trap or possible volatile stratification. Furthermore our modeling results point to a possible sublimation transport of nitrogen from the northwest edge of Sputnik Planitia toward the south.

Fifty seven observations were analyzed, they were obtained between 9th April and 3rd July , at a phase angle of MVIC has four color channels; all are discussed for completeness but only two were found to produce reliable light curves: Blue nm and Red nm.

The other two channels, Near Infrared nm and Methane-Band nm , were found to be potentially erroneous and too noisy respectively. The Blue and Red light curves show that Charon's surface is neutral in color, but slightly brighter on its Pluto-facing hemisphere. The experiences of the writers, political issues illustrated, and the impact upon the Black literary landscape universal will be explored.

Riders to the Sea de Ralph Vaughan Williams: Full Text Available Riders to the Sea: The composer, inspired by folk wisdom and the world of the Spirit, open to worldly solicitations as well as to meditation, saw the play as a vehicle to highlight some aspects of his own musical heritage. In a few pages of dialogue, the score conveys a whole range of different emotions arising from the confrontation with Nature, and more particularly, from the forlorn struggle of the islanders against the sea and God, their ruler.

Sede central Ralph M. Parsons Company Pasadena EE. The built surface of 42, m2 consists of a story central tower, with 1, m2 per floor and three satellite buildings, around the tower, with three stories each and a surface of 2, m2 per floor; at ground level additional space of 4, m2 per floor has been foreseen. The complex has 1, outdoor parking spaces in addition to 70 indoor parking spaces, located in two of the satellite bodies. The architects main objective was to give the building a solid and sturdy image, representative of the Company's activity —one of the world's leading engineering firms—by enclosing the exterior volumes with prefabricated concrete panel s.

The lay-out of each floor was studied in order to permit adaptation to varied and flexible schemes. El conjunto cuenta con 1. In the context of what is ostensibly a monolingual society, Japanese Shakespeare has produced a limited number of performances that have attempted to be multilingual. Most of them, however, turn out to be translingual, blurring the borders of linguistic specificity. Earth's surface is shaped by the physical, chemical and biological processes operating on it and the interactions amongst them.

No single discipline can lay claim to this surface, nor offer a full explanation of its dynamics. Only interdisciplinary approaches can unlock answers to key questions such as how do erosion and tectonics interact to build mountains, how do landscapes respond to climate change, how can we read processes from the sedimentary record, what is the role of erosion in Earth's carbon cycle, and how can we give reliable early warning of damaging earth surface process events?

In this lecture, I shall scour the interfaces of geophysics, geochemistry and geomorphology for understanding of the mechanisms, controls and impacts of mass wasting in steep mountain settings, ending up in remarkably flat places to find new insight into the dynamics of Earth's surface.

The emphasis of this presentation is on education -- education on environmental issues, deregulation of the electric power industry, the Clean Air question, balancing the national budget, and economic growth for the US. These issues are briefly discussed in relation to possible congressional action.

Rootsi suurriigi staatuse Baltimaades varauusajal kindlustas poliitiliste, majanduslike, sotsiaalsete ja religioossete struktuuride eriline kombinatsioon. Kulturgeschichte Klaipedas vom Mittelalter bis ins Die aktuelle Position Estlands im internationalen Steuerwettbewerb: Identifies several common attitudes of institutions, trainees, and trainers regarding the training of a backup searcher.

Ten tips are given for dealing with the less-than-perfect training situation, with recommendations depending on the combination of attitudes for internal or external training, or both. Hirabayashi, Satoshi ; Kroll, Charles N. Component-based development and sensitivity analyses of an air pollutant dry deposition model.

Reclaiming a National Treasure. A Report to The Ralph M. The island of Catalina off southern California has been fished recreationally and commercially for over a century. The marine resources of this popular destination are under increasing pressure as the population of southern California expands rapidly. The effects of this pressure have been dramatic for many marine species off Catalina.

Clearly, the marine resources on Catalina are limited while human population growth does not appear to be limited in the near future. Alpha List of Prime Contract Awards. The analyses of both modern river loads and chemical and physical hillslope denudation show that rates of weathering and erosion are tightly interlinked. An increase in silicate weathering through increased mountain erosion should therefore lead to global cooling by increased drawdown of atmospheric CO2.

A five-fold increase of global sediment delivery was suggested for the last 5 Million years from a global compilation of sedimentation rates 1 , and was also specifically suggested for the European Alps 2 and the India-Asia collisional area 3. While much research effort is currently being directed at explaining this increase, we should have been suspicious because this apparent increase in global erosion rate was not accompanied by a similar concomitant decrease in atmospheric CO2 as recorded by ocean alkalinity proxies.

One possibility is that the increase in Neogene sedimentation rates is an artifact introduced by the discrepant time scale over which sedimentation is measured 4. The older the age, the longer the observational integration time will be, which in turn include longer periods of hiatus, and hence decreasing sedimentation rates with geologic time.

An analysis of the records named above for time scale bias indeed suggests the possibility that erosion in these mountain belts might have been constant throughout the Neogene. An independent test of this hypothesis is provided by marine records of the isotopes of Beryllium 5.

Be is a rare radioactive cosmogenic nuclide, is produced mostly in the atmosphere and introduced to the surface oceans with a flux that can be considered to be globally uniform when averaged over time scales exceeding those of climate cycles. Be-9, in contrast, is stable, and enters the oceans from the continents mainly by river particulates which are dissolved to some extent in the water column and during early diagenesis , in the dissolved form, and in minor amounts from dust.

Should the global erosion rates have increased, the isotope ratio of Be to Be-9 would have decreased by roughly the same factor. Over the past 10 My, records of chemical marine deposits Fe-Mn crusts and authigenic deep sea sediments show no change in this ratio after correction for radioactive decay of Be Therefore, these records support the hypothesis of constant global erosion and weathering fluxes.

If this hypothesis is true, neither Late Tertiary mountain building nor Quaternary cooling affected or was affected by a change in silicate weathering rates.

Instead, a more continuous mechanism is suggested in that subtle ongoing hillslope rejuvenation in any soil-mantled hillslopes in kinetically-limited settings enable the feedback that stabilizes atmospheric CO2 and climate levels through silicate weathering.

In fact, in steep, active mountain belts an increase of relief and erosion rates to those that are in excess of conditions were soils are stable lead to a decrease, not an increase of weathering rate. But the aim here is not to discount active mountains as premier agents of CO2 withdrawal. Silicate weathering may still take place within the adjacent sedimentary basins, and large carbon deposits could also be buried there in the organic form.

Downs, Nature , Int , Sadler, GeoResearch Forum 5, 15 O'Nions, Earth and Planet. Letters , The aim of the article is to reveal the presence of a subtext in which McCarthy hints at the alienation between humans and the natural environment and thus puts forth a radical disillusionment with Emersonian values. Whereas transcendentalists come to read nature as a medium to find spirituality and to be able to communicate with the divine, McCarthy projects confusion and disorder through human terror onto nature—or rather what is left of it in the darkened and almost entirely destroyed world in The Road.

Against the background of a journey through a burned-out America which is usually celebrated for its natural beauty, the protagonists have to face a desolate waste land: The article examines how the idealistic concept of American nature with which the country once strove to identify itself is exposed, rejected and in fact, heavily attacked in The Road.

Welcome and Introductions, Ralph Phelps Satoshi equally went further to corroborate that the CRM retail Study. Establishment of a Quorum: Roll Call and Excused Absences. Welcome and Introductions, Ralph Phelps. Wrap up and Comments Environmental Cleanup Priorities 3: Public Comment Period, Ralph Phelps 7 p.

Comments from Board Members, Ralph Phelps 5 p. Excused Absences, Lorelei Novak. Approval of Agenda and January Open Forum for Board Members. Raw data for 'Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon'. This dataset contains the raw data for spin-on doping experiments of Ge-on-insulator wafers for light emission purposes. Approval of Agenda and New Business, Ralph Phelps. Call and Excused Absences, Karen Erickson.

Welcome and Introductions, Ralph Phelps, Chair. Lifescience Database Archive English. Ralph Nansen, who worked on the first government sponsored solar power satellite studies, and is the author of Sun Power: The Global Solution for the Ocean Press, Lasers that Beam Power to Earth.

Dan and Ralph C. North Korea Through the Looking Glass. Brookings Institution Press, Oh, Kong Dan and Ralph C. Smith is known to most contributors because of his superb knowledge of the arts. But it should also be known that Ralph is one of the best "all round" intellectuals in this country, or anywhere else. After seeing Ralph at work as an editor, it became clear to this author that he had a view of things far greater than would ordinarily be….

Structure, Enzymology, and Physiological Roles. The recognition of the importance of these enzymes has been increasing ever since it was determined that they played a role in the phosphatidylinositol PtdIns cycle and a number of excellent reviews have already been written [ see van Blitterswijk and Houssa, ; Kanoh et al.

We now know there are ten mammalian DGKs that are organized into five classes. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure, enzymology, regulation, and physiological roles of this DGK and suggests some future areas of research to understand this DGK isoform. Subtype specific genetic associations for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Campbell and Satoshi Omura, and Youyou Tu for the discovery of avermectins and artemisinin, respectively, therapies that revolutionized the treatment of devastating parasite diseases.

With the recent technological advances, a New Golden Age of natural products drug discovery is dawning. Modernizing the North Korean System: Objectives, Method, and Application. A Contemporary History, revised and updated ed. Oh, Kongdan, and Ralph C. Kongdan and Ralph C.

North Korea through the Looking Glass. The Economic Implications of Korean Unification. Hoover Institution Press, , North Korea through the Looking Glass Washington The Brookings Institute, Information Contact Ralph J.

Contingency Tools Description Document. Information Contact Ralph I. Afghan Tortoise, Korean Hare: Advising in Hard and Soft Cultures. Magnus and Eden Naby, Afghanistan: East-West Center Press, Magnus , Ralph H. Mullah, Marx, and Mujahid. Fighting With the Air: Croicu, Mihai, and Ralph Sundberg. Saksamaa eksport uutesse Euroopa Liidu liikmesriikidesse.

Allan Creamer, , or allan. Deadline for filing motions Statistics of the sagas. Innate immunity's path to the Nobel Prize and beyond. However, we stress that our primary goal is to demonstrate the flexibility we have in Providing initial blockchain state. Each node in the Bitcoin network typically maintains its own copy of the entire. Epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The release of endogenous prostacyclin PGI2 is depressed in patients with pulmonary arterial hyper Yokukansan improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia by suppressing dopaminergic function.

Although three drugs, risperidone, yokukansan, and fluvoxamine, have sh A case of retinopathy of prematurity treated by pattern scan laser photocoagulation. We experienced a case of retinopathy of prematurity that was successfully treated with pattern scan laser.

Pattern scan laser treatment should be considered as one treatment option for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Since then the bitcoin has undergone significant changes marked with rapid growth and decline of its value, accompanied by public attention. The bitcoin is a system based on complex cryptographic algorithms without central authority that releases money or monitors transactions.

There are discussions over the issue whether bitcoin could po NeuCoin is a decentralized peer-to-peer cryptocurrency derived from Sunny King's Peercoin, which itself was derived from Satoshi Nakamoto's Bitcoin. As with Peercoin, proof-of-stake replaces proof-of-work as NeuCoin's security model, effectively replacing the operating costs of Bitcoin miners electricity, computers with the capital costs of holding the currency.

Proof-of-stake also avoids proof-of-work's inherent tendency towards centralization resulting from competition for coinbase reward Since thermal forcing is unnecessary for neutrally stable trials, they are the Ralph Leslie 1 Task Manager - Mr. Diversity and Black Officer Integration in the U. Marine Corps for and Beyond.

Blacks in the Marine Corps. Schexnider, and Marvin M. Blacks and the Military: Studies in Defense Policy William Golding's Lord of the Flies presents the dark side of human nature through the experiences of a group of children cast away on a desert island. Free from the rules that adult society has formerly imposed on them, the boys struggle with the conflicting human instincts that exist within each of them-the instinct to work toward civilization and order and the instinct to descend into savagery and violence.

Primarily focusing on the point of view of Ralph , the protagonist, the author gives us an access to Ralph 's inner thoughts and exhibits his great emotional and psychological development throughout the novel. This paper attempts to analyze the process of how Ralph loses the battle of civilization against savagery and finally gains an understanding of man's potential for evil and thus probe into the theme of the novel: Viewpoints on Grid Standards.

At GCC in Shanghai in December , a panel discussion was held on the future of grid computing and on the role of the Globus Toolkit in future grid standards. The panel talks were stimulating and well received. Three of the panel talk notes are selected and included in this viewpoint. An unparalleled collection of recommended guidelines for data warehousing and business intelligence pioneered by Ralph Kimball and his team of colleagues from the Kimball Group.

Recognized and respected throughout the world as the most influential leaders in the data warehousing industry, Ralph Kimball and the Kimball Group have written articles covering more than topics that define the field of data warehousing.

For the first time, the Kimball Group's incomparable advice, design tips, and best practices have been gathered in this remarkable collection of articles, which spans a decade of. Your sons and strangers: Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, both being naturalists, emphasize a close relation between humans and nature. However, their views over the influences of nature towards human world are different in many aspects. Inference Package Version 3. Telomeric heterochromatin propagation and.

Thomas, Science , Taylorism, Tylerism, and Performance Indicators: Explores the antecedents to the growing interest in the use of educational performance indicators. Discusses this issue in relation to the work of economist F. Taylor and evaluator Ralph Tyler. Describes a five-year project that demonstrates the promise of teacher-developed performance indicators.

Working Together to Benefit Children. Teachers inspire, encourage, challenge, and help…. Writing above the Ground.

Discusses and appraises the work of Nobel Prize winning black author Toni Morrison. Locates thematic and stylistic antecedents in the works of Fyodor Dostoevsky and Ernest Hemingway. Compares and contrasts Morrison's work with Ralph Ellison's "Invisible Man" and discusses the critical reception of black authors.

Plantadores de cidade ehk linnaistutajad: Erskine korteriga elamu ja arhitekt Proctor Matthews'i lintmajad. Chapters in this book include: Although it is true that today's education needs improvement, schools today are not all bad. The opinions of the following five experts, whose views are worth hearing are introduced: Lindquist; 4 Walter Cook; and 5 Harold Benjamin. Despite the fact that the entire collection of Ralph Waldo Emerson's sermons was published more than two decades ago, scholarly interest has so far been limited.

Transforming the Profession of Teaching in a Changing Society: This paper examines an alternative view of teacher education that enables teachers to redefine their image and mission in the changing society of Japan. This vision is inspired by and draws upon the educational and philosophical thoughts of nineteenth-century American writers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, and contemporary….

The Utility of Mass Violence. He wrote extensively on this topic in his autobiography Mein Kampf: Mein kampf Ralph Manheim, Trans. Original work published Students drop out of STEM fields due to poor grades. College students planning to major in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM fields often drop out of those fields because of poorer than expected grades, according to a recent study. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: Ralph LaRossa did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" "JMF" should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them.

His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…. Australia's South African war Body Language in the Classroom. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye….

The following personnel were interviewed: The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 92, Number 2, March-April Beautification of the area also has been considered. At present it is a bare, sandy plain, with a caliche base, much like the surrounding Noted North Dakota historian Orin G. Libby mapped burial mounds on the Forest River in the extreme eastern portion of the state at the Journal of the North5 Dakota Archaeological Association 1: Saksa moeajakiri "Brigitte" otsustas edaspidi avaldada "reaalsete naiste" pilte, kuid selle vastu on saksa moekunstnik Karl Lagerfeld.

Technical Leadership Development Program-Year 3. Val Gavito and Ralph Giffin Speaker: Stop Blaming your Culture. Jon Katzenbach and Ashley Harshak. The report contains the description of the implemented data structures for sets, lists and graphs.

It summarizes the changes made for the RALPH compiler to accommodate the special statements of FGRAAL; gives the calling sequences generated by the changed compiler; and describes the object time subroutine package. Federal Disaster Recovery Programs: Can This Marriage Be Saved? The Future of "Neuro-Education". Neuro-education, a new frontier for educational researchers, has its passionate advocates and equally passionate detractors. I evaluate and challenge their arguments.

This permits me to articulate my…. Glade seems to have the There is a universal demand for well-prepared professionals in all disciplines, and society has entrusted professional schools with the task of preparing such individuals Ralph , Walker, and Wimmer, Within this context, field or clinical instructors and university faculty have an academic and professional responsibility to teach, supervise,….

Therapist Autonomy as Countertransference. This paper discusses N. Ralph 's four stages of development for the novice therapist, focusing on the fourth stage therapists become aware of their own feelings and reactions to the therapeutic process through the author's experience in therapy.

The therapist as client is discussed according to Karen Horney's classification of neurotic…. Kodukollektsioonid on valminud moedisaineritel: Emerson, Reading, and Democracy: Reading as Engaged Democratic Citizenship. A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series. One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Marie Borroff, Wallace Stevens, Joseph N. Riddle, Hi Simons, Sister M.

As I look back at for the Pacific Northwest PNW Research Station, I am very gratified at the contributions of our scientists and support staff in producing scientific knowledge and tools. This year has brought unprecedented recognition of the contributions of our scientists. Lightweight Towed Howitzer Demonstrator. Phase 1 and Partial Phase 2. Tube Laying Accuracy Robert Tom Enright Michael Moore Ralph Robert Rathe, Bart Anderson.

A high school teacher tries to eliminate the obstacles to subversive teaching in public schools by asking them to design schools that embodied the principles of learning suggested by the romantic and transcendental writers like Emily Dickinson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edgar Allan Poe, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman. It helps the students….

Yugoslavian Inferno , New York: Continuum Publishing Company, , Strategic Studies Institute, U. Army War College, Londonis esilinastus animafilm "Wallace ja Gromit: Music Education for Social Justice.

According to Hedges , the real enemies of the liberal class are radical thinkers such as Noam Chomsky and Ralph Nader, iconoclastic intellectuals who possess the moral autonomy to defy the power elite. While this author agrees with Hedges, he would take this argument even further. In this article, the author argues that the real enemy of…. Scholars have long debated whether the Sagas of Icelanders - ancient narratives set in the Viking Age - are fact or fiction.

Ralph Waldo Emerson's first essay, "Nature," has been viewed as a reconciliation of the world of nature with the world of mind. A close analysis shows that Emerson was in fact attempting to come to terms with human fragility in a unique way by delineating the point at which the worldly and the transcendental are demarcated.

Kicking off adaptive immunity: In , Ralph Steinman and Zanvil Cohn discovered an unusual looking population of cells with an unprecedented ability to activate naive T cells.

LD Original Number Chr. Det er selve interaktionen, der er organisationen. Implementation schemes for unsharp measurements with trapped ions. Full Text Available , Phys.

A 85, A , A 84, The characters in "Lord of the Flies" possess recognizable symbolic significance, which make them as the sort of people around us. Ralph stands for civilization and democracy; Piggy represents intellect and rationalism; Jack signifies savagery and dictatorship; Simon is the incarnation of goodness and saintliness. New Dimensions in Higher Education No. Tyler, and Wilbert J.

McKeachie, in independently prepared statements made before a summer institute on effective teaching, emphasized that good learning is active rather than passive; stresses the learning of principles; exploits the advantages in newness: Toose teachings, which restrict our understanding of LIC, include cultural stereotypes as Bruce Clarke and Ralph L.

Probability and Random Processes: A First Course with Applications. Full Text Available 58 http: Finally, logisticians must remain flexible and not necessarily wedded to a Volume 94, Number 3, May-June Nathaniel Raullerson and McKinley Mosley.

The Levels of "Rappaccini's Daughter. Nathaniel Hawthorne's short story "Rappaccini's Daughter" reflects the author's view that inherent in the human dilemma are ambiguous ironies which cannot be resolved. Although Hawthorne unlike Ralph Waldo Emerson perceives evil as an extraordinarily potent force, he offers no clear moral solutions in this story, but examines various…. Milton Franke, for his guidance and support throughout the course of this thesis effort. The insight and experience was certainly appreciated.

Gary Erickson , and Scott Goodliff. Drawing The Red Line: The life rafts are ejected and tethered by a string 1CA New investigations on shock-wave synthesized high-pressure phases in the system Si-Al-O-N. The shock-wave synthesis of nanostructured high-pressure phases at a gram-scale permits the analysis of spinel type nitrides with different chemical composition using methods not suitable for microgram amounts of material.

The synthesis of pure high-pressure modifications gamma-phases of different SiAlON-compounds using amorphous H-bearing precursors at pressures of GPa is a necessary prerequisite for precise determinations of crystal chemical features. Etching with HF is a well-known method to purify the high-pressure nitrides Sekine Volatile elements like H2 and Cl2, as well as non-stoichiometric oxygen and nitrogen, and NOx, H2O are enriched in the disordered rims.

Under these conditions the gamma-phases stay unchanged under air, argon and vacuum. Furthermore chlorine, an important impurity of the H-bearing precursors neither influences the synthesized products nor the synthesis process itself. This effect is also visible in samples contaminated with impurities of low pressure modifications. The more complex structure of gamma-SiAlON and the simultaneously exchange of the cation- and the anion-positions prevents the appearance of this important feature.

Yet to be synthesized pure gamma-SiAlON using similar H-bearing precursors is necessary to resolve its structure. Poor tolerance of beta-blockers by elderly patients with heart failure.

Despite the well-understood importance of beta-blocker therapy in heart failure, it is sometimes not possible to use beta-blockers in elderly patients due to poor tolerance. In this report, we describe the case of an year-old patient with severe systolic heart failure complicated by aortic valve stenosis and atrial fibrillation. A simple therapeutic approach involving discontinuation of beta-blockers remarkably alleviated the symptoms such as left ventricular ejection fraction, and improved the chest radiography and laboratory findings; further, atrial fibrillation converted to sinus rhythm.

It is important to carefully administer beta-blocker therapy to elderly patients with heart failure, especially after considering cardiac output. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Full Text Available Protozoa and helminths are the two main groups that cause parasitic diseases with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms.

Protozoa are unicellular organisms like the malaria parasite Plasmodium, which is responsible for the majority of deaths associated with parasitic infections. Helminths are alternative parasites that can produce debilitating diseases in hosts, some of which result in chronic infections.

The discovery of effective therapeutic drugs is the key to improving health in regions of poverty and poor sanitation where these parasites usually occur. Both drugs revolutionized therapies for filariasis and malaria, significantly reducing by large percentages their morbidity and mortality.

Wednesday 18 May at Their excursion to the cycle races is the first of a series of adventures for the unlikely pair which soon turns out to be a whimsical journey of laughter and tears with a wide array of surprises and odd ball characters to meet along the way.

Original version Japanese; English subtitles Wednesday 25 May at Original version Japanese; English subtitles. Epoch-making milestones in antibiotic exploratory researches in Japan. He is the third to win the award for research on antibiotic, following Fleming' UK, , discovery of penicillin and Waksman USA, , discovery of streptomycin , and the second person after Waksman to receive the award for research on actinomycetes. These efforts finally led to the discovery of avermectin and its semi-synthetic derivative, ivermectin, considered a monumental contribution to the human race.

In this manuscript, I will outline the chronicles of the epoch-making antibiotic exploratory researches preceding Prof. Unity gain and non-unity gain quantum teleportation. We investigate continuous variable quantum teleportation. We analyze our results using fidelity; signal transfer, and the conditional variance product; and a measure derived in this paper, the gain normalized conditional variance product.

However, a central strand in the rhetorical tradition itself, led by Aristotle, and arguably the dominant view, sees rhetorical argumentation as defined with reference to the domain of issues discussed. On that view, the domain of rhetorical argumentation is centered on choice of action Turner and Philip E. Converse Social and. Rainfall is adequate for crop growth if properly distributed.

Nature is one of an important themes in America literature. This article mainly analyzes Ralph Emerson, Henry David Thoreau,Nathaniel Hawthorne, Jack London, Ernest Hemingway and Robert Frost's different representative stylistic works on nature; inquires into nature's various forms in America literature, such as its personification, objectification, deification and so on; elaborates on its significant meanings; expounds and proves the relationship between and nature in different writer's works and points out nature's profound impact on human.

We can expect that the management of the constraints in USAF operations will contribute to future success in executing our global Today, it is doubtful such extreme discrepancies would survive scrutiny without a change in circumstances. Impact on Strategy and Operational Art. Norton and Company, , Translated by Krista Smith. Translated by Ralph Manheim. An Alternative Approach to Combination Vaccines: The bubonic form of plague results from Yersinia pestis injected into Protection against experimental bubonic and pneumonic plague by a recombinant capsular F1-V antigen fusion protein The Falls City Engineers: The music of war: Seven World War 1 composers and their experience of combat.

The effect of World War 1 military service on composers has been neglected in comparison with poets and artists. The relationship between experiences of combat and the psychological health of these men is examined, with consideration being given to predisposition and possible causative influences of military service on their later careers, examined from individual and societal perspectives.

Lukas Moodysson ; Rootsi - Taani - Saksamaa. A new finite element analysis program for solar cell simulation. As its name indicates, it uses the finite element technique to solve the fundamental semiconductor equations in the cell. It may be used for predicting the performance thereby dictating the design parameters of a proposed cell or for investigating the limiting factors in an established design. Herman Balsters, Han Biumer. The Modified Mission Type Order: Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances.

This report includes the issuances received in March Burns Caused by Medical Therapy. Even fewer studies have addressed the burn risks posed by medical therapy administered Mills GH, Ralph S. Bums due to pulse oximetry [ letter ]. Burns associated with the use of. Untersuchungen zum Einfluss verschiedener Dosierungsintervalle von Dorzolamid, Dorzolamid-Timolol und Latanoprost auf den Intraokulardruck normotensiver Hunde.

Wiley and Sons, Inc. On chip analysis of CNS. Chamberlin, Pierre Gaspard, Debra J. Although no single model is likely to explain all these Sampling, Analysis, and Risk Assessment. Sampling, Analysis , and Risk Assessment 5a. Politics and the Evolution of the Army Reserve: Barnes and Noble Books, , University of Wisconsin Press, , Meredith, , Greenwood Press, , Directory of Marine Scientists Taxonomy and Systematics, Zooplankton; Algae University of Investigations of Human Question Answering.

The origins of intelligence in children. Methodology that used by Ralph Kimball's to design star schema. The result is data warehouse that provides some global information which global, relevant, and integrated which can be seen from various points of view that is useful for the leaders to make decisions.

Separate data warehouse from operational databases that already exist required by Software Laboratory Center to assist leaders in making strategic decisions in a fast and precise way.

Modem , Sciolino, Elaine 15 September In this book Ralph Cahn analyzes the logical structure of the periodic system of chemical elements and discusses the differences and similarities between various tables advanced by 19th-century chemists.

After a survey of the historical and philosophical literature, the author suggests a more general and philosophically informed approach that allows for a critical epistemological history of the periodic system including its precursors. He argues that the periodic system is essentially a const Problems, Solutions and Counterproblems. The Iran Hostage Crisis. Leaf Against the Axis: Ultra in the West: The Normandy Campaign, The Darleen Druyun Debacle: Procurement, Power, and Corruption.

Optimality of feedback control strategies for qubit purification. Recently two papers [K. Ralph , New J. In the former paper the proof of optimality was not mathematically rigorous, while the latter gave only heuristic arguments for optimality. In this paper we provide rigorous proofs of optimality in all cases, by applying simple concepts from optimal c Supplement 1, November , , DOI Until the s, free weights e.

Although our goal was to simply emulate an inertial trainer, the oscillations could be reduced or even. Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why has it been so difficult to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions for climate assessment, and how can we make progress? Recent contributions to fusion reactor design and technology development. The report contains a collection of 16 recent fusion technology papers on the STARFIRE Project, the study of alternate fusion fuel cycles, a maintainability study, magnet safety, neutral beam power supplies and pulsed superconducting magnets and energy transfer.

Separate abstracts are presented for each paper. We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in in response to a request of Professor B. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary Full Text Available and valid dust exposure and medical surveillance data are collected and reported.

The analysis of this data should provide a better understanding of the health risk associated with silicosis and exposure to silica dust. Current awareness and education Function and gramar in the his- tory of english: In Ralph Fa- sold, editor Nonverb second populations tend to gain Verb second over time e.

Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb The Problem of Race Relations. The War De- - 78 - -T. Graphic , November Driver Adaptive Warning Systems. See Figure 3 for examples of these I am present in the van during the test run, sitting in the passenger seat. Full Text Available Pertumbuhan pesat yang terjadi pada dunia komunikasi mendesak para engineer untuk mengembangkan sistem komunikasi gelombang mikro yang bekerja pada frekuensi yang lebih tinggi.

Dalam penggunaannya, frekuensi diatas 10 GHz rentan terhadap redaman yang disebabkan oleh partikel-partikel di atmosfer yang akan menurunkan keandalan dan kinerja dari hubungan komunikasi radar dan ruang terkait. Partikel-partikel tersebut meliputi oksigen, ice crystals, hujan, kabut, dan salju. Diantara partikel tersebut, redaman terbesar disebabkan oleh titik-titik hujan. Memprediksi kinerja sistem yang terganggu akibat endapan lapisan ini sangat penting dengan melakukan pengujian.

Pengujian dilakukan dengan asumsi titik hujan tersebut berbentuk bola spherical. Untuk intensitas curah hujan yang tinggi, bentuk oblate spheroidal-lah yang lebih realistis. Metode perhitungan redaman yang dilakukan adalah metode redaman hujan spesifik dan metode analitik. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, besar redaman hujan berbanding lurus dengan besar curah hujan dan frekuensi kerjanya.

Semakin tinggi curah hujan dan semakin besar frekuensi kerjanya, maka gelombang akan mengalami redaman yang makin besar pula. Redaman hujan mulai berpengaruh pada frekuensi 10 GHz dan mengalami nilai tertinggi pada frekuensi antara hingga GHz. The adsorption and corrosion inhibition of thiourea on carbon steel in hydrochloric acid has been investigated by weight-loss method. The experimental data have been treated with adsorption theory and sekine method. The result showed that thiourea has efficiently inhibited the corrosion of iron in hydrofluoric acid solution, the adsorption rule of thiourea on the surface of iron obeyed Langmuir isotherm.

During the last few years, a new approach to language processing has started to emerge, which has become known under various labels such as "data-oriented parsing", "corpus-based interpretation", and "tree-bank grammar" cf.

This approach, which we will call "data-oriented processing" or "DOP", embodies the assumption that human language perception and production works with representations of concrete past language experiences, rather than with abstract linguistic rules.

The models that instantiate this approach therefore maintain large corpora of linguistic representations of previously occurring utterances. When processing a new input utterance, analyses of this utterance are constructed by combining fragments from the corpus; the occurrence-frequencies of the fragments are used to Perioperative chemotherapy combined with surgery for liver metastases is considered an active strategy in metastatic colorectal cancer CRC.

However, its impact on initially unresectable, previously untreated advanced CRC, regardless of concurrent metastases, remains to be clarified. The interval between the last dose of bevacizumab and surgery was at least 5 weeks.

The completion rate of NAC and feasibility of curative surgery were the primary endpoints. The median follow-up time was 56 months. The characteristics of the patients were as follows: All patients completed six cycles of NAC.


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