п»ї The Third Hittite Empire | Alternate History Discussion


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For khaldash points-what ancient charioteers brought an end to the Iii Kingdom? He rebuilt the temple of Ashur in Asshur. It said that Amon had descended upon her mother Ahmasi in a flood of forks and light, and on khaldash had khumma that Ahmasi would give birth to a daughter in whom all the valor and strength of the god would iii made manifest on earth. Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc. FTP name this so-called popularis fire-brand, forks also took great pains to prosecute the murderers of his brother, Tiberius. So long as Babylon was content to remain peacefully khumma the protection of Assyria he had no need to move, and other things claimed his attention.

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FTP, identify this legendary founder of Rome. Here were displayed the magnificent sculptures or bas reliefs exhibiting the king's campaigns ; the door- ways were flanked with winged bulls, and the walls and archways adorned with enamelled tiles. Ashur-natsir-pal attacked at once and carried ail before him. A remnant fled across the Tigris to the city Shereshe and held out there. As praetor designate in 65 CE, he was instrumental in revealing the conspiracy of Piso against Nero, and later alerted his predecessor of the German revolt led by Antonius Saturninus. Finally falling years later as a result of war with the Byzantines and the rise of Islam, FTP, what is this Persian dynasty with capital at Ctesiphon that ruled from to AD? He was the favorite of Cornelius Nepos who dedicated the longest chapter in De viris illustribus, or "Concerning Famous Men," to this figure.

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A number held khaldash desperately in Kiribti-abani, which was taken later and razed to the ground. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc. Khumma or Marcus Vitruvius Pollio. Assyria indeed laid a heavy yoke upon the nations. This man's khaldash began with his successful siege and victory at Jotapata in Judea, where he forced the surrender of Josephus. FTP name this empress, probably the most powerful woman iii Byzantine history. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte II, the last Elamite to claim khumma old title "king of Anshan and Susa", was murdered by his brother Khallushuwho managed to briefly capture the Assyrian governor of Babylonia Ashur-nadin-shumi iii the forks of Babylon in Forks.

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Khumma khaldash iii forks

A succession of brief reigns continued in Elam from to , each of them ended either due to usurpation, or because of capture of their king by the Assyrians. In a tablet unearthed in by Henry Austin Layard , Ashurbanipal boasts of the destruction he had wrought:. The devastation was a little less complete than Ashurbanipal boasted, and a weak and fragmented Elamite rule was resurrected soon after with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of Humban-umena III not to be confused with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of Indada, a petty king in the first half of the 6th century.

Elamite royalty in the final century preceding the Achaemenids was fragmented among different small kingdoms, the united Elamite nation having been destroyed and colonised by the Assyrians. The three kings at the close of the 7th century Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, Khallutush-In-Shushinak and Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak still called themselves "king of Anzan and of Susa" or "enlarger of the kingdom of Anzan and of Susa", at a time when the Achaemenid Persians were already ruling Anshan under Assyrian dominance.

The various Assyrian Empires , which had been the dominant force in the Near East , Asia Minor , the Caucasus , North Africa , Arabian peninsula and East Mediterranean for much of the period from the first half of the 14th century BC, began to unravel after the death of Ashurbanipal in BC, descending into a series of bitter internal civil wars which also spread to Babylonia.

The Iranian Medes , Parthians , Persians and Sagartians who had been largely subject to Assyria since their arrival in the region around BC, quietly took full advantage of the anarchy in Assyria, and in BC freed themselves from Assyrian rule.

The Medians took control of Elam during this period. Cyaxares the king of the Medes , Persians , Parthians and Sagartians entered into an alliance with a coalition of fellow former vassals of Assyria; Nabopolassar of Babylon and Chaldea , and also the Scythians and Cimmerians against Sin-shar-ishkun of Assyria, who was faced with unremitting civil war in Assyria itself. This alliance then attacked a disunited and war weakened Assyria, and between BC and BC at the very latest, had conquered its vast empire which stretched from the Caucasus Mountains to Egypt , Libya and the Arabian Peninsula , and from Cyprus and Ephesus to Persia and the Caspian Sea.

Elam, already largely destroyed and subjugated by Assyria, thus became easy prey for the Median dominated Iranian peoples , and was incorporated into the Median Empire BC and then the succeeding Achaemenid Empire BC , with Assyria suffering the same fate. The prophet Ezekiel describes the status of their power in the 12th year of the Hebrew Babylonian Captivity in BC:. In BC, Achaemenid rule began in Susa. Dated to approximately the twelfth century BCE, these gold and silver figurines of Elamite worshippers are shown carrying a sacrificial goat.

These divine and royal statues were meant to assure the king of the enduring protection of the deity, well-being and a long life. Works which showed a ruler and his performance of a ritual action were intended to eternalize the effectiveness of such deeds.

Found near the Temple of Inshushinak in Susa , these statuettes would have been considered charged with beneficial power. While archaeologists cannot be certain that the location where these figures were found indicates a date before or in the time of the Elamite king Shilhak-Inshushinak, stylistic features can help ground the figures in a specific time period.

The hairstyle and costume of the figures which are strewn with dots and hemmed with short fringe at the bottom, and the precious metals point to a date in the latter part of the second millennium BCE rather than to the first millennium.

In general, any gold or silver statuettes which represent the king making a sacrifice not only served a religious function, but also revealed the significance of displaying wealth that should not be overlooked. Elamite seals reached their peak of complexity in the 4th millennium BCE when their shape became cylindrical rather than stamp-like.

Seals were primarily used as a form of identification and were often made out of precious stones. Because seals for different time periods had different designs and themes, seals and seal impressions can be used to track the various phases of the Elamite Empire and can teach a lot about the empire in ways which other forms of documentation cannot. The seal pictured shows two seated figures holding cups with a man in front of them wearing a long robe next to a table.

A man is sitting on a throne, presumably the king, and is in a wrapped robe. The second figure, perhaps his queen, is draped in a wide, flounced garment and is elevated on a platform beneath an overhanging vine. A crescent is shown in the field. It is made of copper using the lost-wax casting method and rests on a solid bronze frame that weighs kg lb.

This statue is different from many other Elamite statues of women because it resembles male statues due to the wide belt on the dress and the patterns which closely resemble those on male statues. The inscription on the side of the statue curses anyone, specifically men, who attempts to destroy the statue: He who would seize my statue, who would smash it, who would destroy its inscription, who would erase my name, may he be smitten by the curse of Napirisha, of Kiririsha, and of Inshushinka, that his name shall become extinct, that his offspring be barren, that the forces of Beltiya, the great goddess, shall sweep down on him.

This is Napir-Asu's offering. It was moved from the original religious capital of Chogha Zanbil to the city of Susa by the successor king, Shutruk-Nahnante. Four registers of the stele are left. The remains depict the god Inshushinak validating the legitimacy of who is thought to be Shutruk-Nahnante. In the periphery are two priestesses, deity hybrids of fish and women holding streams of water, and two half-man half-mouflon guardians of the sacred tree.

The names of the two priestesses are carved on their arms. King Untash Napirisha dedicated the stele to the god Ishushinak. Like other forms of art in the ancient Near East, this one portrays a king ceremonially recognizing a deity. This stele is unique in that the acknowledgement between king and god is reciprocal. The Elamites practised polytheism. Other deities included In-shushinak and Jabru , lord of the underworld. According to Cambridge Ancient History, "this predominance of a supreme goddess is probably a reflexion from the practice of matriarchy which at all times characterized Elamite civilization to a greater or lesser degree.

Elamite is traditionally thought to be a language isolate , and completely unrelated to the neighbouring Semitic , Sumerian also an isolate , and the later Indo-European Iranian languages that came to dominate the region. It was written in a cuneiform adapted from the Semitic Akkadian script of Assyria and Babylonia , although the very earliest documents were written in the quite different "Linear Elamite" script.

In , two even older inscriptions in a similar script were discovered at Jiroft to the east of Elam, leading archaeologists to speculate that Linear Elamite had originally spread from further east to Susa.

It seems to have developed from an even earlier writing known as "proto-Elamite", but scholars are not unanimous on whether or not this script was used to write Elamite or another language, as it has not yet been deciphered.

Several stages of the language are attested; the earliest date back to the third millennium BC, the latest to the Achaemenid Empire. The Elamite language may have survived as late as the early Islamic period roughly contemporary with the early medieval period in Europe. A minority of scholars have proposed that the Elamite language could be related to the Munda Language of India , some to Mon—Khmer of Cambodia and some to the modern Dravidian languages of India and Sri Lanka such as Tamil and Malayalam , in contrast to the majority who denote it as a language isolate.

David McAlpine believes Elamite may be related to the living Dravidian languages. This hypothesis is considered under the rubric of Elamo-Dravidian languages. The Assyrians had utterly destroyed the Elamite nation, but new polities emerged in the area after Assyrian power faded. Among the nations that benefited from the decline of the Assyrians were the Iranian tribes, whose presence around Lake Urmia to the north of Elam is attested from the 9th century BC in Assyrian texts.

They were largely regarded as vassals of the Assyrians, and the Medes, Mannaeans and Persians paid tribute to Assyria from the 10th century BC until the death of Ashurbanipal in BC. After his death the Medes played a major role in the destruction of the weakened Assyrian Empire in BC.

The Elamites thus became the conduit by which achievements of the Mesopotamian civilizations were introduced to the tribes of the Iranian plateau. Conversely, remnants of Elamite had "absorbed Iranian influences in both structure and vocabulary" by BC, suggesting a form of cultural continuity or fusion connecting the Elamite and the Persian periods. The name of "Elam" survived into the Hellenistic period and beyond. In its Greek form, Elymais , it emerges as designating a semi-independent state under Parthian suzerainty during the 2nd century BC to the early 3rd century AD.

From onwards Elam Beth Huzaye was the senior metropolitan province of the Church of the East , surviving into the 14th century. Dated BC from Susa , a city later on shared with the haemenids.

Elamite reliefs at Eshkaft-e Salman. The picture of a woman with dignity shows the importance of women in the Elamite era. Online shopping centre 1. Buy Now Buy Now. For other uses, see Elam disambiguation. Map showing the area of the Elamite Empire in orange and the neighboring areas.

The approximate Bronze Age extension of the Persian Gulf is shown. Part of a series on the. Pishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynasty. Safavid dynasty — Hotak dynasty — Afsharid dynasty — Talysh Khanate — Zand dynasty — Qajar dynasty — Elamite language and Origin of the name Khuzestan. Ancient Near East portal. Stolper, University of California Press, , p. Buy book ISBN Hock, Hans Heinrich An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics 2nd ed.

Cuneiform to the Internet. The Cambridge Ancient History 2nd ed. The Archaeology of Elam: A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian.

Potts, The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Vallat The Archaeology of Elam excerpt assets. Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 15 June Current Projects in Luristan penn. Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq Ezekiel. Cambridge University Press published The linguistic evidence, by Martin Bernal, p. See also Districts of the Achaemenid Empire according to Herodotus.

Provinces of the Sasanian Empire. Sasanian Empire — AD. Patriarchal Caliphate — Umayyad Caliphate — Abbasid Caliphate — Tahirid dynasty — Alavid dynasty — Saffarid dynasty — Samanid dynasty — Ziyarid dynasty — Buyid dynasty — Ambassadors President Provincial governors Supreme Leader. Corruption Crime Education higher scientists and scholars universities Brain drain Health care International rankings Nationality Water supply and sanitation Women.

Science and technology Anti-Iranian sentiment Tehrangeles. Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. The Hon and the wild ox were hunted j as were also the wild boar, deer, gazelle, ibex or goat, and the hare.

The wild ass, mountain sheep, bear, fox, and jackal are named. The eagle was well known, and a great many birds, such as the bustard, crane, stork, wild goose, duck, partridge, plover, dove, swallow, raven, which all seem to be figured on monuments. The Assyrians had domesti- cated oxen, asses, sheep, goats, and dogs.

Camels and horses were introduced from abroad. The Sotjeces oe Histoey. Beyond a few notices in classical authors and a few slight hints in the Old Testament, the history of Assyria is the product of modern research.

The older notices, when reliable, are often unintelligible owing to our lack of the implied knowledge which may have made their reference clear to contemporaries. The ancient monuments, the subject of modern research, present remarkable difficulties.

After Grotefend, in , had succeeded in reading the old Persian inscriptions so far as to: He not only discovered the value of the signs, but succeeded in making an intelligible translation of the whole in- scription in 1 85 1. Later research has added but little to that work. One of the three columns was written in an entirely different form of writing, which the translation of the Old Persian column soon rendered intelligible.

The language proved to be Babylonian and closely akin to Hebrew, Arabic and other languages of the Semitic group. Arguing from the meanings of similar words in the other Semitic tongues, scholars made attempts at translation, depending largely upon the newly acquired know- ledge of the parallel Persian column.

The know- ledge so acquired was soon applied to the somewhat similar Assyrian inscriptions of which Layard had discovered large numbers. It is within the memory of living men that the reading of Biblical names like Sargon, Sennacherib, Jehu, Omri or Ahab on the Assyrian monuments excited the greatest wonder and interest. Each name so read was a fresh triumph of the most laborious research, experiment, and scholarly intuition.

The chapter of research is not entirely closed, for apart from the fact that only a fraction of the total number of Assyrian inscriptions, hoarded in the British Museum and elsewhere, has yet been published, the explorers of the ancient East are almost daily bringing fresh material to light.

In consequence of this perpetually growing mass of material the attempts made to write a History of Assyria are still doomed to b e incomplete. Any day may bring more information to be embodied. It is therefore a triumph of the most remarkable research ever yet made in the way of decipherment that one is able to write a history of Assyria at all.

The nature of that research has imposed certain restrictions. The country had its earliest capital at the city of Asshur, then the seat of government was transferred to Kalah,. Somewhat earlier Botta had obtained a large amount of material from Dilr-Sargon, Very little came from the old capital, Asshur. Since , however, the. Deutsche OrmitgeseUschajt have been exploring Asshur.

The brief notices which the ex- plorers on the spot send home appear regularly in the MiUeilwngen, only serving to make ail scholars long for more detailed information. One may feel sure that a German scholar would not willingly leave much for future students to discover or correct, but the monuments have lain so long buried that they are often encrusted with earthy salts. Till it has been done much remains unread. Further, many kings take special pleasure in repeating the information given on the monuments of their predecessors.

As a result of ah these hindrances to complete and exhaustive treatment, the history, so far as it can be reconstructed, is singularly disconnected. Although we can no longer have much doubt as to its general course, some of the most important events have but slight records, while by some accident of preservation or discovery far less valuable records are full to the minutest detail. We are obliged for the time to take the view of one writer, and that the most interested of all.

We may well hesitate to take without demur all that a king says for himself, but we have no option. There is no other side to the question. Scepticism may easily be pushed too far, and in any case there is no alternative to suggest.

The result is a patchwork of contemporary but uncritical material which can only be considered provisionally attested. It wiU be well to point out where doubt is legitimate and where future discovery may well be expected to bring about revision or extension. When a king claims to Have conquered a certain land lie may only have succeeded in imposing Ms authority, exacting tribute and military service.

It is practi- cally certain that the conquered land would rebel at the first opportunity. The struggle for eiistence was so keen that Assyria must go under unless she broke for ever the power of her neighbours.

She did that, but ultimately exhausted herself by undertaking to rule a wider empire than she could manage. We can hardly expect her to have seen where to stop, and her Mstory, up to the eve of her fall, was a long psean of victory, broken only by the silence which covers temporary reverses.

So they went under, but it was a gay time while it lasted. A certain boldness of outlook made careful, cautious state- ment a fault in style ; while each king hated to seem less successful than his predecessors. It is very difficult to proye that any Assyrian inscription is deliberately false, but it would be absurd to take every statement as literally true because made on the monuments and en- graven in stone, or because it was written in cuneiform and stored in the library of an ancient Assyrian temple or palace.

We are continually told of the large numbers of the enemy who met the king in battle, or the thouands of captives he took, and we may well treat these numbers as signs of boastful exaggeration. We cannot credit that the small states of Mesopotamia could furnish time after time such populations as alone could justify the figures given.

Yor can we credit the amount of spoil stated to have been carried to Asshur, The city could not have held it, nor could the despoiled lands have furnished it again so soon. But when the king narrates his journey from city to city we cannot suppose that the cities he names are imaginary in position or number.

Though lately burnt down by his predecessors, the scattered people would soon gather to the old home. The later kings of Assyria delighted to record scraps of information about their predecessors, which are often the only source we have for early history. These may in some cases be due to tradi- tion, and have therefore been treated by many scholars with natural reserve. For the builders usually inscribed their name and titles, along with their genealogy, upon bricks, pavement tiles, waU decorations, and in the foundation deposits of cylinders, prisms, and votive offerings.

There could be little temptation to falsify such information. The later monarch may, however, have been misled as to the date of his predecessor, and such dates require careful treat- ment. He ascribes the founding of the temple to Aushpia.

This temple, he says, was restored by Erishum, priest of Ashur, and after years it was again restored by Shamshi-Adad, the priest of Ashur. As we Imow on other grounds that Shalmaneser I. Aushpia must be placed still earlier. Now Esarhaddon also restored this temple, and his account seems different in some respects.

He also names Aushpia as the founder. Then he names Irishum, son of Ilushumma, as its restorer. Then after years the temple fell, and Shamshi-Adad, son of Belkabi, rebuilt it. Again, after years, it was burnt down, and Shalmaneser I. Here he seems to put about years less than Shalmaneser does between Erishum and that king. It is clear that he has made no mistake as to the names of the builders. It is usual to suppose that Shalmaneser, being at least years earlier in date, would have better information.

We are not yet in a position to correct or harmonise these con- flicting statements. We may therefore place him about b. We are thus confirmed in our presumption that Shalmaneser's names are correct and his dates probable.

It will be noted that such references as the ascrip- tion of a certain event to a certain king, without statement of the year of his reign, leave us a wide margin for dates. We do not know from what year in his own reign the king counts, nor up to what year of the reign he quotes. Therefore we may place Tukulti-Ninip I.

Now we know that Tiglath- Pileser I. It will have been noticed that Shalmaneser I. This was the usual practice with all the Assyrian rulers.

Consequently we are able to trace the lineal descent of the throne from father to son for many generations. Indeed there is great probabiHty that one and the same family ruled for over years, A I m statements serve as valuable checks upon other statements, and one result has been to establish the fact that an Assyrian king often calls a predecessor y to record his lineal descent, it may be, from a very distant forefather.

A very few more inscriptions would set the series of kings, from Ilushumma down to the fall of Nineveh, in its correct order without blank. A somewhat frequent recurrence of the same name has hitherto led to some confusion, but the recent discoveries at Asshur have filled up an almost hopeless series of We can hardly expect that many more rulers are yet to be discovered for the last two thousand years of Assyrian history.

Of great use in the arrangement of the kings in their proper order are the synchronisms between them and foreign rulers, particularly those of Babylonia. In this the Babylonian Synchronous History is a document of the first importance.

It records the successive rectifications of boundaries between Assyria and Babylonia, giving the kings concerned in them from about b.

We possess lists of this kind, which commence in b. Several copies are now in the British Museum. The Canon of Ptolemy, beginning with b. The Egyptian chrmiology gives valuable assist- ance for the period of the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries b. The synchronisms with the Hittite, Mitanni and Elamite kings are already of value, and more may be expected from these sources as the information with respect to these long-forgotten empires is enlarged by exploration and excavation in the East, tended its dominion over Arbela and Nineven.

There are some indications that Asshur and its neighbouring states entered into a sort of confederacy, perhaps under the pressure of a common foe. Asshur was for early methods of warfare a natural stronghold and a splendid city of refuge. Every indication points to the fact that its popula- tion was perpetually reinforced by fugitives from Babylonia. As in the case of the Babylonian cities its patesis, or city governors, on one side high priests on the other, mayors of the town, would soon lay claim to the title of king.

A king, according to the conception of his powers which we find prevailing in Assyria, had a right to expect military support from his subject cities. He had a principal share of the lands and spoE of conquered peoples, and as protector of the temples m THE ARMY 29 was entitled to borrow from their treasures.

He had also land and estates as endowment of his office. But he was not able to appropriate the property of his subjects at will. These citizen soldiers were a militia, the ummandti of the inscriptions, and as time went on they were increasingly reUeved by bodies of regular troops whose exact functions are not clearly to-be distinguished.

The militia could not be long taken away from agricultural duties, and were ultimately only called out on occasions of great urgency. The soldiers were paid by booty or prize money. The kin g apparently furnished weapons, but the owners of estates upon whom it was incumbent to furnish one or more men for the militia found also clothing and rations for the campaign. A subject city was in the position of a corporate estate owner and had its fixed quota of men to furnish, for whom it was responsible.

Each city had its own laws, and levied its own rates and taxes. Conquered cities paid tribute in men and money. But municipal independence was the rule. Latterly it became a custom for the king to exempt by a rescript certain persons from various dues, and confer privileges of free entrance to and exit from certain areas. This was usually done as a reward for personal service to the king or state. The subject cities were very jealous of their civic rights and customs.

It was the secret of popularity for a king to conserve them. The construction of the Eponym lists indicates that the cities of Assyria formed a confederacy. There was a regular rota of officials who gave their name in turn to the years of a reign. It began with the king himself, and when the court had developed he was followed by the Tartan or Commander-in- chief of the Forces, the Grand Chamberlain, the Chief Cup-bearer and the Chief Baker, Chief Justice, etc.

Next, at all times, followed the governors or viceroys of the old cities. As the kingdom grew other cities or provinces were inclnded. The Eponym for the year was originally chosen by lot, a practice which nominally continued to the last. But the lot fell with convenient appropriate- ness upon the governors of the right places, as a rule. The year in which the governor was chosen Eponym was called the limmu of that governor, and docu- ments were dated in that year as falling in his limmu.

There is, however, no trace of any other special power which the limmu conferred. The Eponym had no special duties to perform, but there is no doubt that his honour commemorated a time when the Eponym was chief of the entire state. His appointment was made in the closing days of the year, and he entered office on the first of Nisan. When the king died the new king started the rota afresh. But it is significant of the importance once attached to the position that after his Eponymy the rota was often carried out as if the accession had caused no break.

The states could hardly have clung so pertinaciously to a mere naming of the year if it had not been the last shred of a once acknow- ledged right to temporary supremacy. We may regard the first period as one in which the city Asshur was gradually gaining supremacy at home.

How soon it took precedence in Assyria proper, or included Arbela or Nineveh in its confederation, we do not know. We have no record of wars with either. The Earliest Rulers of Asshtjr. In the case of the old Babylonian city states it has been noticed that when a state like Lagash came under the supremacy of the kings of Ur, its own rulers, even the powerful Gudea, whose public works were such as any king might be proud to have erected, make no claim to the title of king, but content themselves with that of patesi.

Hence it has been thought that the title patesi denoted an inferior status and that its holder im- plicitly renounced all claim to be an independent monarch. When, therefore, the later kings of Assyria recorded the names of earher rulers and gave them the title of patesi, in view of the evident dependence of Assyria upon Babylonia in all matters of culture, religion and political organisation, it seemed legiti- mate to assume that the same implications held for the use of the title in Assyria.

This view cannot be pressed. The sovereign to whom the was subordinate was divine. The patesi claimed to be the viceroy on earth of his god ; and that he still was, within the limit of his own domains.

His subjection to an earthly sovereign might or might not invalidate his claim to be a king, but did not affect hib relation to his city god. When Asshur was independent its kings continued to call themselves patesi of Ashur. In cases where their inscription was concerned with internal politics alone, especially in the erection of temples, walls, wells, canals, etc.

We can- not, therefore, press the meaning of to imply subjection to an overlord. Nor, on the other hand, is it possible to argue independence from the use of the title king. The term may really be a Sumerian word borrowed by the Semitic Babylonians along with the office.

The pafesi was probably the hereditary Headman of the clan, which claimed to be the aristocracy of the town. He was as such the titular High priest of the city-god. It is, however, scarcely accurate to render the term either as priest or king or even priest-king. The combination of varied ojfifices in one person can never be a justification for the identification of the offices. When, then, we record of a certain ruler that he is entitled pafesi, priest or king, we must not assume that he was anything else than what the title states ; nor can we argue that he ivas not more.

We frequently find that a ruler is called the shahnu of a god, or of a state. The term means solely a locum fenens. The shaknu of a city was the viceroy of its king. When a king styles himself Shaknu of Bel he claims to be viceregent of that god upon earth.

That he was governor of the city: We may now record what is known of each of these early rulers. Esarhaddoii also enumerates the monarchs who built at the same temple. His list has important variations, but it places Aushpia first. He preceded Ilushuma, who was contem- porary with the founder of the First Dynasty of Babylon. The name seems to be Elamite, or perhaps Mitanni. We have no means of assigning an ap- proximate date to this ruler. It is, of course, impossible to say whether the city began with a temple of Ashur or whether its wall was built first.

The name does not seem to be Semitic and may be Elamite or Mitanni. We cannot date this ruler with any certainty. Its former rulers had been only patesis, as we know many of them were. That Marduk, city god of Babylon, decreed the change may be taken to imply that nreviously they were subject to Babylon. We have, however, no in- dication of his date. We know that Hammurabi, fifth in descent from him, did rule Assyria and there is nothing against the assumption that Sumu-la-ilu did also.

Bel-kapkapu would thus be not far removed in time from Ilus- humma, who fought with Sumu-abu. BM-kapkapu must therefore be earlier than Sumu-abu himself. The reason may be that while Sumu-abu was un- successful against llushumma, Sumu-la-ilu may have established a real supremacy over Assyria, which lasted till Hammurabi's time. The form of the name suggests the iteration so characteristic of Elamite names, and in any case was not Assyrian.

We may note that our BM-kapkapu has been thought by some to be identical with Bel-kabi, below. The similarity of this name, and the sug- gestion that the iteration in haphapu may point to an Elamite source, have led to their identification. Then Iguv might in some way be another name, Elamite or Mitanni, for Bel. Another inscription, on a circular piece of onyx or agate, names Shamshi- Adad as builder of the temple of Ashur.

In spite of the difference in spelling, this may be the same person as Samsi-Adad. Some would then identify all the three Shamshi-Adads who built at the temple of Ashur, and therefore make Igur-kap-kapu the same as Bel-kabi.

This would support fihe view that Igur-kap-kapu was also the same as the above Bsl-kapkapu. As we know the series of rulers from Ilushumma for five generations, we then must bring down Sulih a century, when Adadnirari would surely have known of many earlier kings to name. Hence it is unlikely that the Shamshi-Adad who built at Asshur and was son of Bkabi can have been as early as Sulili. Hence Bel-kabi cannot be the same as Bel-kapkapu.

We can hardly identify Igur- kapkapu then with either of these. So we must leave him as the father of Samsi-Adad and put him by himseh for the present. The characters of his inscription point to an early date. The more usual spelling is Shamshi-Adad. Samsi-Adad recalls the names of Samsu-iluna and Samsu-ditana, kings of the First Dynasty of Babylon, If any signifi- cance is to be attached to this form it might be taken as pointing to a West Semitic or Amorite origin.

But it is sufficient to note his claim to be very early on account of the style of his inscription. Eurther, we know that ilushumma was son of Sbahm-akhum and grandson of a Basha-Ashir. We therefore have the series, Bashi-Asbir I. As the last named calls Sbarrukin his ancestor we may assume that the whole series was one of unbroken lineal descent from Basha-Ashir I.

It has been conjectured that, like Shamshi-Adad II. But the document itself renders this reading very un- likely.

We have seen that Bel-kapkapu I. The mention of this ruler's wife is exceptional. We have to go down to the days of Sammuramat Semiramis? She was probably a Babylonian princess. May not this be the explanation here also? It would, however, explain the next king Hammurabi's care for the well-being of Assyria.

He returned to Asshur its protecting deity, evidently carried off to Babylon, perhaps by Sumuabu. If the above suggestions turn out to be well founded we may read this ruler's name BM-kabi. If we accept Shalmaneser's figures we must place the restorer of the Asshur wall, to whom he refers, years before his own time, and that would be about B. Now if Erishum be really years earlier we should date him about b. The tendency of late years has been to reduce this date, but obviously it cannot be further reduced without violence to Shalmaneser's statements.

If we take Erishum as about b. Kiki-Bel may not have been a ruler of Assyria, though his son was. We are unable to place him earlier, and he may have to exchange places with some of the later rulers of the same name. He can hardly be identified with either Shamshi-Adad I. He may, Of course, be either Shamshi-Adad I. This Shamshi- Adad is thus too late to have been a contemporary of Hammurabi's, and cannot be identified with either of the Shamshi- Adads named before.

He rebuilt the temple of Ashur in Asshur. We also know of an Ishme- Dagan who was father of Ashur-nirari I. Hence we denote this ruler as Ishme-Dagan I. Other Rulers called Shamshi- Adad. The list is by no means exhausted. Later we shall be able to place more bearers of the name, but there are others whom we cannot yet fix. He was a builder of the temple of Asshur. He spells Asshur in the same way as does the Samsi-Adad who was son of Igur-kap-kapu.

This may well be an archaism of no great significance. We can hardly identify him with Shamshi-Adad I. He also built the temple of Bel in Asshur, called kurkurra. He may be credited possibly with introducing the worship of Bel into Assyria.

He further boasts of having brought into Asshur the spoils of the kings of Tukrish and of the kings of the upper lands.

He set up a stele with the story of his achievements in the land of Labto, on the border of the Great Sea ; by which we may perhaps understand Lebanon by the Mediterannean.

Clearly a notable monarch! All the more may we regret that he did not name his father nor give any indication of his own period, B. On a circular plate of onyx or agate, now in the British Museum, we read of a Shamshi-Adad who built at the temple of Ashur. He also spells Asshur as do Shamshi-Adad I.

A above, but this is not sufficient to warrant any identification. The next three rulers are inseparable, but their position is very uncertain. He is generally identified with the king Ashur-irbi, who set up his image and stele at Mount Atalur, in North Syria. Ashir-rim-nisheshu, son of the last named, patesi of Ashur, rebuilt the wall of his city, Asshur. We are now able to avail ourselves of the Syn- chronous History and so emerge from a very obscure period into comparatively historical times.

The Syn- chronous History, as it is usually called, was drawn up with the purpose of recording the mutual relations It covered the period from b. It seems to bave been compiled in the reign of Adad-nirari IV.

The commencement is, unfortunately, lost, but the first entry preserved states that Kara-indash, king of Karduniash, the name of Babylonia under the Kassite kings, and Ashur-bel-nisheshu, king of Asshur, mutually agreed to a compact and swore to observe the boundary as settled between them. In the next entry we find that Puzur-Ashur, king of Asshur, and Burnaburiash, king of Karduniash, did the same.

We may at once note that Assyria is already a kingdom and has made good its claim to treat on terms of equality with Babylonia. He also bm of wmg which cut off access to the shore below the city walls, on the Tigris, and so gave protection to the quay. His name is written with the older spelling, Ashir. In that case there must be two of the name, one here and one before Puzuij-Ashur II.

Some scholars would identify him with Ashur-rim-nishoshu, and so bring in here the series, Ashir-rabi I. In that case the work which he completed was pro- tracted over four reigns. Later we must return to Puzur-Ashur II. First, however, we must consider the light thrown on Assyrian history by two external sources, the Tell-el-Amarna tablets and the Egyptian inscriptions on the one hand, and the discoveries at Boghaz-kdi of Hittite inscrip- tions.

They were soon dispersed among the European Museums, London and Berlin now possessing most of them. They proved to be letters in cuneiform script, for the most part in the Babylonian language, from the kings of Syria and Palestine to the kings of Egypt. Among them were also letters from Babylonia, Assyria and Mitanni.

These letters establish synchronisms between the rulers of these states which are invaluable for chronology, and must be read in their entirety to get a cleaT view of Egyptian diplomacy. Suffice it to say here that Egypt was courted by these kings for the purpose of obtaining rich treasures in exchange for native productions, to cement alliances and to gain advan- tages over their neighbours. As it happens, the native sources for Babylonian history are very fragmentary for this period, and scholars are by no dated with considerable certainty from Egyptian monuments.

In the time of Thothmes I. Assyria then fell under the power of Mitanni, but when it was once more independent, active correspondence with Egypt again went on.

The Tell-el-Amarna tablets further show the presence in Mesopotamia of the Arameeans, whose earlier branches appear as Akhlamtl and Suti. They seem to have been pastoral folk whose incursions filled up the open land and, of course, ruined the towns. But, in course of time, they settled into town dwellers.

It has recently been brought into prominence by the discovery of many documents at Boghaz-koi, in the district of Pteria, written in the cuneiform character, and containing important despatches from Mtanni to Hittite kings. We know from the Babylonian Chronicles that the Hittites invaded Babylonia in the reign of Samsuditana, last king of the First Dynasty, and the Kassites who founded the so-called Third D3masty of Babylon may have been part of these Hittite peoples.

At any rate one of the semi-independent kingdoms of this folk was situated about Malatia, and, known to its own people as the kingdom of Mitanni, played a great part in Assyrian history as the Idngdom of Khani or Khanigalbat.

It seems to have been established at least as early as Hammurabi's time. We know now the names of at least six Mitanni kings. They aU bore names which have a strong likeness to Aryan names ; and among their gods were Indra, Varuna, and Mithra, which are clearly Aryan. Hence it is clear that there were Aryan elements in the population of Mitanni, and apparently in power. The people are referred to as Kharii, in which name some see the name Aryan.

How far the Assyrian people were affected by this conquest is difficult to say, but tJieir early connicDs wiwi such warrior folk must have helped to form their national character, t The letter of Tushratta to Amenophis iV.

The so-caUed Hittite tablets excavated by Professor Winckler at Boghaz-koi', have thrown more light upon the matter. Mattiuza, son, and second on the throne after Tushratta, together with his overlord, Sub- biluiiuma of Khatti, by their inscriptions establish the following facts ;: Saushatar, Mattiuza's great great grand- father, had carried off a quantity of gold and silver from Asshur, which city he must have captured.

After the death of Tushratta the Assyrians and men of Alshe had divided his lands. The Assyrians were then independent. Consequently I we must put the ancestor Ashur-nadin-akhe before the Mitanni conquest, i. Of these, Tushratta was contemporary of Ameno- phis IV. His grandfather, Artatama, married his daughter to Thothmes IV. It was in his twenty- third year that Thothmes III. It is then natural to suppose that Ashur-nadin-akhe was the king who received twenty talents of gold from Egypt, and we may date him about b.

Of course the evidence is still shght and needs insoriptional confirmation. It may well be , that this conquest of Assyria extended to Babylonia, For thence the images of Marduk and his consort, Zarpanit, were carried off to Mitanni. Were the Kassites really from Mitanni? We can now return to the rulers of Asshur, The kings we have to name may have been subject to Mitanni for a few generations, or they may have been gradually recovering from the conquest and its consequences.

Ashur-nadin-akhe probably reigned before the conquest, but whether it occurred in his reign or on his death or under one of his successors, we cannot yet deoide. Ashnr-uballit further states that earlier relations existed between the kings of Egypt and Assyria. They do not, however, throw much light on Assyrian history. Kurigalzu, king of Babylon, is mentioned in these letters as on good terms with the king of Egypt, and his son, Burnaburiash, king of Babylon, refers to the Assyrians as his subjects, and protests against an embassy from them having been received in Egypt.

He asks that Assyria shall gain no advantage to his detriment. We may regard his attitude to Assyria as merely diplomatic. The claim to be overlord is not supported by any other indication. Burnaburiash was succeeded by his son, Karakhardash, who married Muballitat- sherua, the daughter of Ashur-ubalUt, and, according to the Synchronous History , Karakhardash and Ashur-ubaUit renewed the boundary treaty of their forefathers.

It is probable that when Ashur-ubaUit calls Ashur-nadin-akhi his father he is only following a custom common enough to indicate an ancestor.

Assyria was therefore again on terms of equality with Babylonia. The presumption is that the country was recovering from the effects of the Mitanni conquest. Probably it also was rendered necessary by the Mitanni conquest. He therefore follows Ashur-bel-nisheshu. We do not know at what interval, but as the next king of Assyria named in the Synchronous History is Ashur-uballit, whose father and grandfather we I know, we must place Puzur-Ashur II.

He has also left a very fragmentary inscription of his own, in which he claims to be shar hishsJiati, and therefore may be presumed to have held possession of Haran. It must have represented the Sepulotes of the Kings. Other kings at Nineveh.

The row south of these were apparent y all set up for city governors. Great was their honour to be buried with the kings. In the so-called weU inscription at Asshur this king gives his own father's name as Erba-Adad, and Ashur-nadin-akhi The well was made by the latter and repaired by Ashur-uballit.

A repair made so soon speaks for some wilful destruction, and makes it possible that Asshur had suffered a capture, perhaps under Erba-Adad. Here again the fall of a temple may be due to the capture of Nineveh. An Assyrian king who held Nineveh could hardly leave the temple of its city god long in ruins. It can hardly be that Ashur-uballit had to rebuild a temple in Nineveh and unstop C? His relationships with Babylon were peculiar and complicated.

We have noted that his daughter married Karakhardash, who came to the throne in Babylon. Ashur-uballit had already had re- lations with his father. Apparently Ashur-uballit assisted him in clearing the Euphrates caravan road of the Suti bandits whom he had denounced to Amenophis k, as infesting the roads to the West. This inter- ference may have provoked the Kassite aristocracy, who at any rate, revolted against Kadashman- kharbe, and put him to death.

They set a Kassite Nazibugash on the throne. Ashur-uballit marched into Babylonia and put the usurper to death. He then placed Kurigalzu II. He may have been the son of the murdered Kadashman-kharbe, or a brother.

Ashur-uballit, his grand- father, or perhaps great grandfather, cannot long have survived his accession. It is very probable that he did this in alliance with Kurigalzu Mmself. But later he fought with Kurigalzu at Sugagi, on the Tsal-tsallat river. He defeated the Babylonian with great slaughter, and made a fresh delimitation of boundaries. His name has usuallybeen read Pu-di-ilu, in ignorance of the fact that Pu and Di were ideograms. From one of his inscriptions his fuller name may have been Arik-den-Bel.

Another campaign was against the land Nigimti, where Adad-nirari I. A third names the cities Kutila, Kudina, Tarbilu and Namu-bilkhi. A fourth names Halah, near the Chabur, and probably points to the possession of Haran. Everywhere he conquered his enemies, and records rich spoil, chiefly sheep and cattle as brought to Asshur.

In one case he names , people, possibly as captives. The last campaign speaks of the rebellion of one Asini. I I conquered the land of Tnruki and Nigimti as well as all the kings of the mountains and hills, the Qnti, Akhlame and Suti as well as the lanri aiid their lands, and thus enlarging boundary and territory. He was evidently a great conqueror. His relations with Babylon seem to have been pacific.

He took up the tale of their conquests and carried it on with his own, He went further still, to the Lullumi in the east. For some reason which we cannot yet fathom, war broke out with Nazi- marattash, king of Babylon, and Adad-nirari I. Here the boundary ran from the land of Pilasqi to the Lullumi. He boasts of having rebuilt the cities of the Kassites, Quti, Lullumi and Shubari folk, and defeated all the people from Lubdi and Bapiqu to Elukhat, He also appears to have taken Haran, with which agrees the title, shdf hislisTiMi, which he bears.

He repaired the walls of the palace which Ashur-nadin-akhi, his forefather had built, and a shrine in the temple of Asshur. The knag crossed the Tigris in its upper course, planted a strong military colony on the Kashiari range near Diabekr, and then pro- ceeded along the southern spurs of the mountams west to Malatia.

His second campaign was to Khani- galbat, the old Mitanni. Here the king, Sattuara, offered stout resistance. He had allied with the farther Hittites and the Aramaic Akhlamu.

Its later years were marked by the successful reigns of Dionysius the Elder and Younger, but it was finally conquered by Rome in BC, when it became the provincial capital of Sicily. FTP, what is this city that successfully resisted a siege by Athens with the help of Archimedes? An inscription found at this site records its 10th century BC occupation by Sheshonk I. Found on the southern edge of the Plain of Esdraelon, excavations of it have revealed its namesake "Ivories", one of the best examples of Canaanite art, as well as Solomon's chariot stables.

General Edmund Allenby's WWI victory was the most recent in a long series of battles fought there due to its strategic location at the crossing of two military and trade routes. Tel Megiddo prompt on Armageddon.

He died due to a coup led by the head of his Praetorian Guard, Macrinus. Remembered in part for his sumptuous baths whose impressive remains can still be seen in Rome, he promulgated the constitutio Antoniniana, which made virtually all the free men in the Roman Empire full citizens. Earlier, he killed his brother Geta so that he could rule alone. FTP, name this son of Septimius Severus named for the long, flowing cloak he preferred to wear.

Caracalla or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The Legend of the White Hair-Pin relates how when this monarch courted a young woman whose husband died on their wedding day working for him, she jumped into the Bohai Sea. Extending his empire's control over the Ordos Steppes, he ordered the "Burning of the Books", after consolidating control in the time following the Spring and Autumn Periods.

Eventually buried with a bunch of slaves and terra cotta statutes, during his life he began the building of the Great Wall. Qin Shihuang or Shihuang-ti accept early buzz of First Emperor.

He learned battle tactics while leading an army under Scipio Aemilianus in the siege of Numantia. To ensure power he had his half-brother Heimpal assassinated, and then moved against his other half-brother Adherbal.

The nephew and later adopted son of Miscipsa, he bribed the Consular legation sent to negotiate in BCE, precipitating a war in which he initially outwitted Metellus. FTP, namet his Numidian ruler, who fought a namesake war with Rome. Much of our knowledge of it comes from inscriptions on animal bones and tortoise shells.

Its king also acted as a pries in a veneration of the chief god of the period, Di. Its early history includes the introduction of bronze working from Iran and the movement of the capital from Zhengzhou to Anyang by its Yin nationality. It began when its founder T'ang defeated king Chieh, a possible ruler of the Hsia kingdom.

Succeeded chief record the Yen ben Zhi, successful control of flooding on the Yangtze was first attained by by the Chou, FTP, name this first historical Chinese dynasty. He captured his greatest enemy by turning King Bocchus after his agent Bomilcar failed in betrayal.

He was the first to recruit soldiers from the Head Count and their loyalty to him is signified by the fact that they were known as his "mules. However jealousy over a subordinate led to a civil war and eventually his seventh consulship. FTP, name this superior of Sulla and victor over Jugurtha. One side established camp on the northern side of the Epineus River, while the other deployed near Mt. The loser planned to attack the enemy flank supported by archers under Lasienus, but this move was defended against, forcing flight into Egypt and assassination at the court of Ptolemy XII.

The victor would also be assassinated, just four years later. The death of the popular Masistius in a skirmish, and unfavorable omens on both sides, delayed the start of this battle for eight days. Then the poisoning of the Gargaphia spring forced the Greeks to move. The subsequent retreat into the foothills of Mount Cithaeron prompted the Persians to attack, but the Spartan line held, and the Persian general was killed.

Battle of Plataea [pluh-TEE-uh]. They initially responded to a call to fight against Duke Svatopluk from Emperor Arnulf. This was made easier because the Pechenegs had already forced them west. The Byzantines bribed them to fight Simeon I after they destroyed the Moravian empire and occupied Pannonia. They had initially crossed the Carpathians under the leadership of Arpad. Finally forced to settle after defeat at Lechfeld to Otto the Great, they would convert to Christianity under Arpad's son, Saint Stephen.

FTP, name this indigenous people of Hungary. Magyars prompt on early buzz of "Hungarians". He was brought up at the estate of Macellum in Cappadocia and as a youth converted to Neoplatonism. Ammianus Marcellinus describes him as a stocky, athletic type, which is confirmed by his statue in the Louvre. After assuming power in , he ruled for only twenty months. FTP, identify this nephew of Constantine the Great who gained his nickname when he renounced Christianity and became a pagan.

He named his sword Azoth after he cured the paralyzed daughter of an innkeeper with a teaspoonful of wine and his "azoth of the red lion. He maintained that disease is caused by agents outside of the body and became associated with the Rosicrucian movement. FTP, name this bombastic occultist, who claimed to know more than the great Roman doctor Celsus.

Paracelsus or Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim. This ruler's final years were spent near Tivoli in a life of relative comfort. That life was made possible because this ruler's rebellion was laid at the hands of a secretary, Longinus, a faithful servant of Lord Odenathus, his master's spouse. Upon Odenathus' death, this leader took advantage of the weakness of Gallienus and waged war for five years, before finally succumbing to the forces of Aurelian in AD.

FTP, name this thorn in the side of Rome, a famous queen of Palmyra. After the death of both his successors, the Greeks gained power over his kingdom under General Horemheb. His situation was unusual as he was born from a commoner Tiy, and he changed succession procedures by deeding control to his son-in-law Smenkhkare. Much of our knowledge of him comes from excavation around his new capital city at the present day site of Tell-el-Amarna.

FTP, name this father of Tutankhamen and husband of Nefertiti, who promulgated worship of one god, Aton. Akhenaton or Ikhnaton or Amenhotep IV. Today, it is a small city of about fifteen thousand people situated near an oasis. Among its notable structures are Hisham's Palace and the Byzantine structure of St. Recent developments include a cable car built to access the nearby Mount of Temptation. This man was appointed king of the empire upon the death of his father in battle against the Massagetes.

He served as king of Babylon for a year, but later resigned after a faux pas at a religious festival and was made satrap of Bactria. After marrying Phaidymia, daugther of Otanes, it is said that he slew is brother Smerdis in order to protect his reign. The victor struck a special legionary denarius depicting the aquila and two vexillae, and known as the Aegypta Capta, to commemorate this battle. One side amassed their forces in the Ambracian Gulf, while the other gathered near the promontory that gave this battle its name.

The defeated side's navy consisted of massive quinqueremes, while the victor's were the more maneuverable Liburnian vessels. With troops commanded by Agrippa, the combined Roman and Egyptian force was destroyed.

The site at which this battle occurred was first excavated by Sir Leonard Wooley and T. This battle was precipitated when one side moved its capital to Haran, and then later to this site. Lying on the Euphrates about sixty-five miles northeast of Aleppo, one army was delayed at Riblah, prior to which King Josiah was defeated at Megiddo. Necho finally reached this site to find Nebuchadnezzar had already conquered it, and promptly slew the approaching Egyptians. The first group under this name was formed for mutual protection against pirates, though not much else is known.

This group's second and more famous incarnation was founded in order to free Sicyon from tyranny and fell under the leadership of Aratus. Later, the Romans deported this organization's leaders, including Polybius, and defeated them at the Battle of Corinth. FTP, identify this group of Greek city-states whose goal was Greek liberty. One side represented Orthodoxism, while the other side represented the Monophysites and tradesmen, though the two groups formed a truce in order to rebel during this event.

On the fifth day of this event, the nephews of Anastasius were dismissed from the palace, where the mob fell upon them and led them to the Forum of Constantine, where Hypatius was proclaimed the new emperor. This rebellion's name came from the word meaning "to conquer" and the generals Narses and Belisarius were sent to repress it. The earliest references in Babylonian and Assyrian texts to this kingdom call it Anshan. According to Herodotus, its most famous capital was supposedly established by Deiokes, who was succeeded by Phraortes.

The city of Nineveh was captured by his successor Cyaxares, who extended this kingdom's borders to the Halys river in Asia Minor. This kingdom fought a famous war with Nabonidus of Babylon, but it is perhaps most famous for seeding the Persian Empire. After being ostracized, he fled to Argos, then to Corfu, and then to the court of Artaxerxes, who supposedly thanked the gods upon his arrival and gave him talents and rule over some cities of Asia Minor.

As archon, he established the first public works project to convert the bays of Piraeus into harbors, and he may have aided Miltiades in his flight from Gallipoli, but he is better remembered for increasing the size of the Athenian navy in anticipation of a Persian attack after Marathon.

FTP, name this man, the victor over the Persians at Salamis. He unleashed the First Coalition War after falling foul of the regent Perdiccas, and then took command of the campaign against Eumenes of Cardia. The Peace of the Dynasts temporarily solidified his position, and he tried to revive Philip's Corinthian League as a defense against Cassander and his other enemies, but he was finally killed in BCE at the battle of Ipsus.

Antigonus Monophthalmus or Antigonus the One-Eyed. Only Augustus and Valerius Corvinus had held the consulship at a younger age than this man, and no one had been awarded a triumph younger than when he received one in 38 BCE. He first gained recognition for putting down an Aquitallian uprising in Gaul.

A notoriously jealous Augustus ordered that a banner always be carried in front of him proclaiming that he had never suffered defeat in response to this man's brilliance at Actium.

Herodotus mentions a diplomatic incident in which this people caused the Medean-Lydian Wars, and their interference under their king Madyas during Cyaxares' siege of Nineveh led to their namesake interregnum. Originally from the area around Pazaryk, their move west displaced tribes like the Urarteans and Cimmerians. Eventually displaced by the Sarmatians, FTP, name this ancient nomadic people of Central Asia named after a curved tool.

Located on the confluence of the Turja and Mantza rivers, the Greeks called it Uksadama and held that it was founded by Orestes. After its conquest by Ainurat, it functioned as the Ottoman capital until the fall of Constantinople. This city served as the meeting place for a namesake treaty between Russia and Turkey which guaranteed Greek autonomy, and was the site of a CE defeat of Licinius by Constantine.

He secured the banishment of Hyperbolus and after inheriting a family fortune rose to prominence by arguing against the policies of Cleon.

His final campaign was thwarted by the arrival of Gylippus, the death of Lamachus, and a loss at the river Assinarus. FTP, name this very superstitious Athenian who opposed Alcibiades over the Sicilian Expedition but ended up leading that expedition, and who gave his name to a peace agreement in the middle of the Peloponnesian War.

Beginning his career as part of an outcry against Scipio Nasica, he served as land commissioner and realized the potential of the Roman Knights. He instituted judicial reform with the Lex Judiciaria and proposed to extend citizenship to all Latins.

In BCE, his supporters held a mass demonstration on the Aventine Hill that was broken up by Lucius Opimius, but not before he committed suicide. Caius Gracchus or Gaius Gracchus. Early on he gained the enmity of the senate by executing four ex-consuls, including Gaius Avidius Negrinus, for plotting against him.

As a young man he was called "Graeculus" for his Hellenic studies and he was ridiculed for his sexual relationship with the Greek youth Antinous, who was made a god upon his death by drowning. He put down the revolt of Bar Kokhba in Jerusalem in and chose his Antoninus Pius as his successor. Hadrian or Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus. When it was first written, it dealt primarily with monetary compensations, or wehrgeld.

However it was Clause 6 in title 59 that became the most important part of it, particularly after it was amended by Chilperic. It was lost until , and in it was used to weaken the arguments of Henry IV of England.

Doubts about its secret repeal in in Spain fueled the Carlist agenda and Napoleon would adopt it for ascension to the Imperial Throne. FTP, name this legal code written in the time of Clovis, whose most important portion became a rule of succession that forbade females from ascending to the throne. Salic Law or Lex Salica. In Plato's Timaeus, Critias acknowledges this man as the ultimate Greek source for the Atlantis myth having heard it while in Egypt.

Among his accomplishments was the seisachtheia or the "shaking off of burdens" which cancelled debt and he was also responsible for ending debt-slavery as well as dividing his fellow citizens into four property classes. He wrote several poems about his life and works and a story in Herodotus has him rebuking Croesus for assuming that wealth equates with happiness.

FTP identify this early 6th century Athenian reformer and one of the Seven Sages who revised Draco's harsh laws and paved the way for future democracy.

He fought his last battle at Eurymedon, where he led a Seleucid fleet. He fought to a draw at Crotona, and was recalled after his side's defeat at Bagbrades, a few years after his brother's death at Metaurus River. This was a far cry from such early victories as Trebia and Lake Trasimene. His greatest victory came when he encircled the forces of Paulus and Varro at Cannae, but utter defeat followed fourteen years later at Zama in BC.

Among the battles in the later part of this war were Cynosemma and Cyzicus. The eventual losers reached a high point after Sphacteria but following defeats at Delium and Amphipolis signed a peace ending the first phase, called the Archidamian War. Beginning with a fight between Corcyra and Corinth, it ended with crushing defeat at Aegospotami, though the climax had occurred nearly a decade earlier with the disastrous Sicilian Expedition.

In the last years of his reign he put down the usurper Eugenius defeating him at the River Frigidus while earlier he had defeated the usurper Magnus Maximus. Although he had gone into retirement following the execution of his father, two years later he was recalled to service by Gratian after the death of Valens at Adrianople in In response to a riot he massacred much of the populace of Thessalonica but was forced to do penance by Ambrose of Milan.

FTP, name this emperor who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman state. Theodosius the Great or Theodosius I. Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite - watching the birth of a god. Among other things its metopes show the Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs while the inner frieze shows a Panathenaic Procession. Designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates it has eight columns rather than the traditional six. FTP, identify this temple, the centerpiece of the Athenian Acropolis.

From the drawings of Jacques Carrey done in we can tell that it once had a minaret on top while at another time it was a Byzantine Church of the Theotokos. Highlights of its east pediment include Helios driving his chariot and a group of three women. Early events in this philosopher's life include his father Icesias involving him in the debasing of the metal in his hometown, for which he was banished, and his subsequent abandonment by his slave Manes.

Late in life he was kidnapped by pirates and sold to the nobleman Xeniades. Famous anecdotes involving him include his plucking of a fowl to demonstrate Plato's claim of man being a "featherless biped" and his famous anachronistic meeting with Alexander the Great, described by Plutarch. FTP, identify this philosopher said to have used a lamp in broad daylight to search for an honest man, a man considered to be the founder of Cynicism.

He began construction on a number of aqueducts including the Anio Novus which were completed under his successor. Among the casualties of his reign was the joint heir at his succession, Gemellus, and the prefect of the Praetorian Guard Macro. Another prefect, Marcus Clemens, joined a band of conspirators including his assassin Cassius Chaerea. He dined with and showered gifts upon Incitatus who, unfortunately, was a horse.

Caligula or Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Among the lowlights of his reign was the exile and subsequent execution of Helvidius Priscus. His rise to emperor was due mainly to the military success of Antonius Primus and the support of Mucianus. His reign saw the re-building of the Capitol, which had been burned during a conflict between his supporters and those of his predecessor Vitellius, whom he rebelled against while commander in Judea.

He reinforced Caecilius Metellus Pius against Sertorius in Spain and the lex Gabinia gave him a special command against Mediterranean pirates.

He ended the war of Spartacus and the final revolt of Mithridates VI, but his military success came to an end approximately fifteen years later when he fought to a draw at Dyrrachium and was crushed at Pharsalus in 48 BC by his greatest rival. FTP, name this member of the first triumvirate and chief rival of Julius Caesar. Pompey the Great or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. His final ruling stint came after his victory near Mount Hymettus. He extended influence by recovering Sigeum, thereby controlling the Hellespont, and by acquiring the Thracian Chersonese.

His second time in power came after he married the daughter of Megacles, although he was later forced out by Megacles and Lycurgus. This son of Hippocrates had first come to power with much difficulty but peacefully passed rule to his son Hippias. His first known action was the negotiation of a treaty at Margus that gained his people a sum of pounds of gold a year.

He died during the reign of Marcian and came to power after the death of his uncle Rua and after he killed his intended co-ruler, his brother Bleda.

His rule was already on the decline before Aetius and a confederation of troops defeated him at Catalaunian Plains, or the Battle of Chalons in After his death, his generals Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus divided up his kingdom.

FTP, name this Macedonian prince who conquered much of the known world before dying in his 30s. His lesser victories included Lyginus where he defeated the Triballi and the Jaxartes where he defeated the Scythians. Among his less honorable acts were the destruction of Thebes and the slaying, in a fit of anger, of Cleitus the Black who saved his life at the Granicus. The commander of the companion cavalry at Chaeronea, his major victories came at the Hydaspes.

This empire often had trouble keeping its great families such as Karin, Gev, and Suren in check and its administration has often been described as "feudal. Ruled by the Arsacid dynasty, this empire was defeated in campaigns by Trajan and Septimius Severus, but did succeed in defeating and killing Crassus a Carrhae. Parthians or Parthia accept Arsacids before mentioned. One early victory was over the Merkit who had kidnapped his wife Borte.

In this fight and in his later rise to power he was greatly aided by Togril, a friend of his father Yekusai, whom he later turned against. He succeeded in consolidating his people and gaining rule over them at the khuriltai of and went on to lead them against the Kwarezm Empire as well as the Hsia and Ch'in kingdoms.

He died while on campaign in China and was succeeded by his son Ogadai. FTP, identify this great Mongol ruler, the grandfather of Kublai. He owned a herd of magnificent oxen that he kept on Mount Ida and his grandfather, Tros, deeded him a team of matchless horses that he offered as a reward to save his daughter.

Eventually Telamon took his golden veiled daughter, Hesione, away to Salamis after Heracles, who had slain the sea monster plaguing this man's city, killed him for his treachery. This was not the first time this father of Tithonus and Priam had run afoul of the gods. Earlier he had failed to pay Apollo and Poseidon for helping to build up his city's defenses. FTP identify this monarch, the son of Ilus, under whose reign the walls of Troy were constructed. Hers is the first name in the subtitle of Camille Paglia's Sexual Personae.

While debates rage whether she was of royal blood, her father was probably an official named Ay. What is more reliable is that in the twelfth year of her husband's reign, she either fell from favor or died, and although she bore him six girls, his two sons, including Smenkhare, were probably from his second wife Kiya. Her face is well known from numerous statues and carvings of the Amarna period, although her mummy has not been found.

They were divided into three types: The second type usually collected tribute, distributed soldier's pay, and afer BCE, formed a distinct order below the equestrian class. The most famous type, however, could invalidate acts of lower magistrates as well as consuls through their veto, and some, like the Gracchi brothers, championed social causes like land reform, although under the empire, their power was usurped by the emperor.

FTP, name these Roman officials who presided over the plebian assembly and often agitated for plebian demands. Leading figures in their society included the eran spahbod, their military leader; and the mobadan mobad, the head of the priests that served as the main authority over the empire's official form of Zoroastrianism. Before the fall of their final ruler Yadzagird III, they rose to prominence by conquering the Parthians and gaining territory from the Romans in a war that even saw the capture of emperor Valerian by Shahpur I.

Finally falling years later as a result of war with the Byzantines and the rise of Islam, FTP, what is this Persian dynasty with capital at Ctesiphon that ruled from to AD? One satrap of this ancient country, Bessus, briefly tried to organize resistance to Alexander the Great after the defeat of Darius III, and it was later under the rule of Perdiccas and Antigonus. After becoming a kingdom, its rulers included Eucratides and Euthydemus, but Greek rule was later challenged by the Indo-Scythians and the Tochari.

FTP, name this kingdom founded around BC when the Seleucid satrap Diodotus conquered Sogdiana and made himself an independent ruler, and which also lends its name with a certain type of camel.

They developed Africa's only indigenous written script, Ge'ez, which has evolved into modern Amharic script, and the first coinage used in sub-Saharan Africa. Key cities included Yeha, Mantara, and its port of Adulis on the Red Sea, and their namesake capital, which covered 75 hectares during this kingdom's height. Notable for constructing enormous stone monoliths over the graves of their leaders, they appear to have discontinued this practice in the fourth century CE, possibly as a result of their conversion to Christianity.

FTP, name this civilization of the Ethiopian plateau. The son of either Ikunum or Laibum, his humble origins included his service as cup-bearer to Zababa. His intervention in a merchant's dispute in Pur-sha-handa brought him to the height of his career, which included an invasion of Cyprus. Kassala and Subartu fell to him after his victory at the Battle of Nippur, leading him to become the first ruler of his people to govern a multi-ethnic state, which included the Elamites, whose capitol city of Susa he burned.

FTP, name this successor of Lugal-za-gesir who established the world's first historical empire in Mesopotamia. Sargon I or Sargon of Akkad. This language used short vertical lines to separate words and did not distinguish between voiced, voiceless, and aspirated stops.

It was syllabic and had no signs for lone consonants making closed syllables cumbersome to write. It also employed logograms which may explain why it was initially believed to be a pictographic language by Sir Arthur Evans. Linear B at no point prompt on Linear A. The third led a revolt based in Britain and was briefly recognized by Honorius before being suppressed.

The second died in a civil war with his similarly-named brothers. The fifth was nicknamed Copronymus and continued the iconoclastic policies of his father Leo II. The last was the eleventh and was also the last emperor of Byzantium. All these men shared their name with, for 10 points, what emperor who fought Licinius and Maxentius on his way to becoming the first Christian Roman emperor.

It was originally composed of two independent kingdoms which were separated by the Tees River. It was united by Aethelfrith of Bernicia, who was later defeated by Edwin of Deira Edwin added Scottish and Welsh territory to this kingdom and established its superiority in England. The Danes invaded it in with their victory at York, and Canute installed Danish earls, of whom Siward was the last and most powerful FTP, name this kingdom of northern England.

By the end of this encounter one side's lack of supplies caused all civilians and wounded to be expelled at the base of Mount Auxois where many starved to death.

Preceded by a skirmish at Vingeanne, which allowed them to hunker down, the defenders were ordered to dig a trench north-south between the Ose and Oserain rivers along the namesake town. The aggressors responded by digging their own series of trenches and setting up a 12 foot high wall, with observation towers every feet.

This technique allowed the Romans to beat back attacks from both sides and trapped the Chief of the Averni and his men in the town. But after capturing Avaricum, Lutetia, and Gergovia, Labienus and his general were feeling confident that the Gauls would fold. FTP identify this 52 B. Cicero later argued that this episode spurred him, while Plebeian Tribune, to propose land reform measures unfavorable to the ruling oligarchy. FTP, identify this man who was killed in BC near the Capitol, during an armed confrontation with political enemies.

According to one legend this historical figure received a signet ring from Honoria, the sister of Valentinian III, which he assumed was a marriage proposal. The leader of forces assembled by his uncle Rua, he killed the Visigothic king Theodoric I at a battle near the Marne river, though in the end his forces were defeated by Aetius.

This man first gained fame during the Megarian war, and organized a new party to vie with the factions of Lycurgus and Megacles, whose daughter he married. After twice briefly holding power and being expelled, he gathered allies and wealth before defeating the Athenian army during a surprise attack at Pallene. In addition to purifying Delos and gaining control of the Hellespont, he encouraged Miltiades to set up a tyranny over Chersonesus. During the reign of the eleventh and last king with this name, Herihor, high priest of Karnar, effectively ruled at Thebes and was succeeded by Smendes, a merchant prince.

Libyan marauders were present in Thebes during the ninth and tenth ruler's reigns, while the fourth and fifth completed great projects like the two temples at Dayr al-Bahri.

The third saved Egypt for the confederation of the sea peoples, while the first ruled for only two years and was succeeded by his son Seti. FTP, identify these Egyptian kings of the 19th and 20th dynasties, the second of whom built temples at Luxor and Abu Simbel. Ramses or the Ramesside kings. The lex Plautie Papiria was passed as a result of this conflict.

After forming a republic with capital at Corfinium, the insurgents won victories in the northern sector until Marius and Strabo managed to suppress them, but Lucius Julius Caesar suffered reverses in the south that forced him to pass a law to dissuade the Estruscans and Umbrians from seceding. This emperor executed Eprius Marcellus, one of his earlier supporters, late in his reign, and banished Helvidius Priscus.

Legate in Judaea, he gained power after defeating his predecessor's forces at the second battle of Bedriacum and at Rome with his brother's and Mucianus' support.

His cousin Cerealis broke a revolt in the Rhineland, and Romans reached their furthest extent into Britain at Mt. Graupius during this man's reign. FTP, identify this emperor who erected a temple of peace, restored the Capitol, and was succeeded by his son Titus.

The first evidence of their existence are the Kultepe tablets and their archive at Bogazkoy has yielded some early inscriptions. Their mythology centered on the Illuyankas stories, the missing god tales of Telipinus and the Storm-god, Teshub, and the consorts Kumarbis and Ullukummis. Labarnus founded their Old Kingdom and under Suppilulimas they successfully assimilated the Hurrians. Most famously defeated under King Muwutallis at Kadesh by Ramses, this is, for 10 points, what ancient people who ruled the land of Hatti and apparently first used iron weapons?

He died in pitched battle at Pistoia while fleeing for his life. He made his name during the Social War, while serving with Pompey under the forces of Pompeius Strabo. It was actually the ambassadors of the Celtic Allobroges tribe and his mistress that would prove his undoing.

These details are mostly found in the biography of him written by Sallust. Sallust also relates that after serving as governor of Africa, this man was barred from running for consul and how his attempt to circumvent the ban led to Cicero's series of orations against him.

Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catilina. Their settling pattern seems to have been marked on the southern end by the Acari Valley. They survived the coastal desert by bringing in water through a large series of underground aqueducts. Much of that water came from their namesake river, the south bank of which was the site of their capital, Cahuachi [KA-wa-chee].

They arose from the Paracas culture, and their chief contribution remains their immense and cryptic namesake "Lines," carved across numerous edifices.

For 10 points, name this first millennium CE Peruvian culture that gave way to the Incas and whose name survives in a South American tectonic plate. They were divided into six tribes, including one called the Magi, and, according to Herotudus, Deioces united them in the 8th century BC. A total solar eclipse on May 28, BC, caused an army from this country led by Cyaxares to abort a battle with the Lydians and negotiate a peace treaty. An alliance with the Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar culminated in the conquest of the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in BC.

For ten points, identify this horse breeding people subjugated by Cyrus the Great, who had their capital at Ekbatana. The groundwork for this battle was laid by a successful surprise attack during the siege of Utica. The Roman force arranged itself in columns with hastati in front, separated by velites. Laelius' cavalry quickly succeed on the Roman left in this battle whose site Livy identified as Naraggara.

Nevertheless, a timely maneuver by the Numidian cavalry under Masinissa allowed the Romans to outflank and destroy the Carthaginians in. Tarquinius Priscus was the subject of the first one recorded by Livy, while Valerius was the first to be given one by the Republic. The subject wore the gold embroidered toga picta and would be followed by a slave reminding him he was merely a mortal.

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In this manner, the last Elamite king, Khumma-Khaldash III, was captured in BC by Ashurbanipal, who annexed and destroyed the country. And other cities and towns, such as Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson. 2 Jan BC--King Khumma Khaldash II of Elam is assassinated and the throne is usurped byShilhak-In-Shushinak, a general in the Elamite army. a major and humiliating defeat at the Battle of the Caudine Forks in BC, and another at Lautulae in BC, but they persevere and finally emerge victorious. Rome fought a series of four wars with them, suffering disastrous defeats at their hands at the Caudine Forks and Lautulae, before winning decisive victory at . Indeed, Syria took advantage of her death to revolt, as it did not seem likely that the year-old Thutmose III would be able to maintain the empire as well as his .

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