Despite strong standards and beliefs in education, Gap children consistently gap poorly, reflected by a low average of math and achievement scores, as compared to other groups except African American. Explanations for the achievement gap—and levels of concern over its existence—vary widely, and are the source of much controversy, especially since efforts achievement "close the gap" have become some of the more politically prominent education reform issues. This trend was first reported in the s' by the Journal of blacks in Higher Education and still achievement today. Understanding Achievement in U. National Voting Rights Act of42 U. As a result, these children enter school with decreased word knowledge that can affect their language skills, influence their experience with books, and create different perceptions and expectations in the classroom gap. Email A Friend Your Email has been sent.
The Brookings Institution, Add Your Comment Name. While particular achievement gaps may vary significantly in degree or severity from group to group or place to place, achievement gaps are defined by their consistency and persistence—i. Both recent immigrants and the children of immigrants are faced with language barriers and other migration obstacles. The author draws an analogy with the concept of national debt-which she contrasts with that of a national budget deficit-to argue the significance of the education debt. Researchers concerned with the achievement gap between genders cite biological differences, such as brain structure and development, as a possible reason why one gender outperforms the other in certain subjects.
This guide is designed to help Gap members lead a discussion with other educators and community members that will identify the specific factors contributing to local achievement gaps in schools, school districts, and communities. A story of struggle and hope in Compton. Enter your e-mail address required: Gap up to 3 free items to your shelf. As a result of cultural differences, African American students tend to begin achievement with smaller vocabularies than their achievement classmates.
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The information will not be used for any other purpose. Your Email has been sent. Click here to return to the article. Great Public Schools for Every Student. Identifying Factors that Contribute to Achievement Gaps Discussion Guide 2 Raising achievement to higher levels and closing student achievement gaps are priorities in schools and communities at all economic levels, and in urban, rural, and suburban settings.
Factors That Contribute to Achievement Gaps Within Schools' Control Outside Schools' Control Schoolwide Factors Low expectations for student achievement; Lack of rigor in the curriculum; Large class size; Tracking groups of students into a less demanding curriculum; Unsafe schools; Culturally unfriendly environments; and Poor, or no, instructional leadership.
Factors in the Local Community Economic opportunity for students' families; Access to health and social services; Community safety; Access to libraries, museums, and other institutions that support students' development; and Access to child care and after-school programs and facilities. Teacher- and Teaching-Related Factors Uncertified and inexperienced teachers; Insensitivity to different cultures; Poor teacher preparation; Low expectations of students; and Inadequate materials, equipment, and resources, including technology-based resources.
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Journals that are combined with another title. These have included investment in pre-kindergarten programs, class size reduction, small schools, curricular reform, alignment of pre-kindergarten through college standards and expectations, and improved teacher education programs. Such efforts aim to accelerate the learning of minority students to greater than a year's growth in one year's time so that over time they catch up to their peers.
Other schools have started de-tracking their students in order to provide the same quality education for all students, regardless of race. Another focus of reform efforts to address the achievement gap has been on teacher development, as research shows teachers to be the most important in-school factor affecting student achievement.
This reform effort has been both top-down, in the form of higher state standards for teacher education and preparation,  as well as bottom-up, through programs like Teach for America and AmeriCorps that aim to address educational inequity by recruiting and training teachers specifically to work in high-needs schools. One policy strategy aimed at preventing, or at least mitigating, the achievement gap at its earliest stages is investment in early childhood education.
In addition to increased access, there has also an increased national focus on raising quality standards for Head Start and state-funded pre-K programs, and in improving training and professional development for early care providers. The evidence in favor of investing in early childhood education as a means of closing the achievement gap is strong: Sociologists Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips have argued that narrowing the black-white test score gap "would do more to move [the United States] toward racial equality than any politically plausible alternative".
Computer and technology use have been linked to increased student achievement. Using technology as a tool for narrowing the achievement gap begins with a purpose, communication, listening, and collaboration. These skills can be achieved through the use of weblogs, social networking sites, feeds, and myriad other multimedia.
In classrooms, students can communicate internally, or they can work side by side with others who are located thousands of miles away. Through the use of technology, presentations can be archived so that the material can be reviewed at any time. Having access to information on the web gives students an advantage to learning. Technology has been incorporated into the Standards. Even though the NCLB Act holds school districts accountable for student achievement, there are still many students who do not have the resources at home to fully take part in these excellent educational tools.
Some teachers feel that technology is not the solution and see it as a risk. Therefore, technology is not always being used to its fullest potential by teachers and students do not gain the advantages technology offers. According to the U. The government has lent its hand in closing the Global Achievement Gap by granting funding for low-income school districts for programs such as one-on-one computing, however, the fact that many of these students do not have online capability at home is still a main issue.
This digital divide may cause the achievement gap to increase as technology continues to become heavily integrated in the daily coursework for school children. Students need to have Internet access outside of school on a regular basis to successfully complete challenging courswork.
Exceptions to the achievement gap exist. Schools that are majority black, even poor, can perform well above national norms, with Davidson Magnet School [ citation needed ] in Augusta, Georgia being a prominent example. Another school with remarkable gains for students of color is Amistad Academy in New Haven, Connecticut.
These schools offer more rigorous, traditional modes of instruction, including Direct Instruction. In one study, Direct Instruction was found to be the single most effective pedagogical method for raising the skill levels of inner-city students Project Follow Through. High performing Black schools are not unique to the twentieth century. In Washington, DC in the late 19th century, a predominantly low income Black school performed higher than three White schools in yearly testing.
This trend continued until the mid 20th century, and during that time the M Street School exceeded national norms on standardized tests. African Americans lagged behind whites in by nearly a factor of two. However, it is less frequently observed [ citation needed ] that whites lag behind Asians by nearly as large a ratio. The group with the least education is not the African Americans, but the American Indians , Hispanic or Latino or other groups who have quite a different legacy of discrimination.
The African-American community is behind the curve in education but statistics show 9 out of 10 young black adults ages 25 to 29 have completed high school or its equivalent. In , over three millions degrees were awarded throughout the United States. Half of all degrees earned were bachelor's degrees. The bachelor's degree is one of the most awarded degrees for all ethnicities and races. Asians obtained bachelor's degrees more than any other race, followed by Whites.
Despite high educational expectations, Hispanics are among the least educated group in the United States: The table below shows the number of degrees awarded for each group.
United States Department of Education - . Between - , college enrollment rates increased for all races. The college enrollment rate is determined by the percentage of high school students who enroll in 2 year or 4 year college and universities immediately after completing high school.
In comparison, the same rate increased from In , the enrollment rate of high school graduates reached a historical high of Asian Americans have the highest enrollment rate Parenting methods are different across cultures, thus can have dramatic influence on educational outcomes.
Department of Education, b, p. Although parents and children share high educational aims, their aspirations do not necessarily translate into postsecondary matriculation. School administrators must accommodate and account for family differences and also be supportive by promoting ways families can get involved. For example, schools can provide support by accommodating the needs of the family who have do not have transportation, schools may do so by providing external resources that may benefit the family.
This can be achieved by creating an environment where both teachers and students learn about cultures represented among the student population. African Americans were once denied educations. Even as late as , about one third of African Americans over 65 were considered to lack the literacy to read and write their own names. However, by , illiteracy as it had been traditionally defined, had been largely eradicated among African Americans—the number of among young adults was less than one percent, though African Americans still lag in more stringent definitions of document literacy.
Inability to read, write or speak English in America today is largely an issue for immigrants, mostly from Asia and Latin America.
Illiteracy by Age And Race: Educational attainment rates change when it comes to comparing the same races against immigrants or foreign born students. Black African and Caribbean immigrant groups to the U. S report having higher levels of education than any other group.
This trend was first reported in the s' by the Journal of blacks in Higher Education and still continues today. Census, out of the African populations, Nigerians reported to having the highest level of education. Completed High School age . US Census surveys showed that by , 89 percent of African Americans age 25 to 29 had completed high school, lagging only slightly behind 93 percent for whites.
For all over the age of 25, clear majorities of whites, Asian Americans and African Americans had graduated at 88 percent, 85 percent and 77 percent, respectively. Conservative African American scholars such as Thomas Sowell observe that while SAT scores are lower for students with less parental education and income. Test scores in middle-income black communities, such as Prince George County , are still not comparable to those in non-black suburbs.
Most state tests showing African American failure rates anywhere from two to four times the rate of whites, such as Washington State's WASL test, and only half to one-quarter as likely to achieve a high score, even though these tests were designed to eliminate the negative effects of bias associated with standardized multiple choice tests.
It is a top goal of education reform to eliminate the Education gap between all races, though skeptics question whether legislation such as No Child Left Behind truly closes the gap just by raising expectations. Others, such as Alfie Kohn , observe it may merely penalize those who do not score as well as the most educated ethnic and income groups.
Office Washington State Superintendent of Instruction. The amount of education completed varies greatly between members of religions in the United States.
US religions ranked by percentage reporting a college degree: However, broken down by race, US Asians scored comparably to Asian nations, white Americans scored comparably to the best European nations. Although some racial generally score lower than whites in the US, they scored as well as whites in other European nations. Hispanic Americans averaged , comparable to students Austria and Sweden, while African Americans at were comparable to Norway and Ukraine. Achievement gaps among students may also manifest themselves in the racial and ethnic composition of special education and gifted education programs.
Typically, African American and Hispanic students are enrolled in greater numbers in special education programs than their numbers would indicate in most populations, while these groups are underrepresented in gifted programs. For the past fifty years, there has been a gap in the educational achievement of males and females in the United States, but which gender has been disadvantaged has fluctuated over the years.
In the s and s, data showed girls trailing behind boys in a variety of academic performance measures, specifically in test scores in math and science. Data in the last twenty years shows the general trend of girls outperforming boys in academic achievement in terms of class grades across all subjects and college graduation rates, but boys scoring higher on standardized tests and being better represented in the higher-paying and more prestigious STEM fields science, technology, engineering, and math.
Traditionally, girls have outperformed boys in reading and writing. Although this gap may be minimal in kindergarten, it grows as students continue their education.
According to the National Reading Assessment measured by the US Department of Education , the gap between boys and girls, only slightly noticeable in 4th grade, left boys 14 points behind girls during their 12th grade year. The gap between male and female 4th graders was 7 points in By 12th grade, there was an point gap between males and females. On the National Writing Assessment, boys scored on average 17 points lower than girls in 4th grade. The average gap increased to 21 points by 8th grade and widened to 24 points by senior year in high school.
The average score for female eighth-graders was 20 points higher than males, down 1 point from the score. For twelfth-graders, females outscored males by 18 points as opposed to 21 points in All of these assessments were conducted on a point scale. Which gender is disadvantaged by the gap in math and science achievement largely depends on how academic achievement is being measured. Female students generally have better grades in their math classes, and this gap starts off very minimal but increases with age.
Male students also score higher on measures of college readiness, such as the AP Calculus exams and the math section of the SAT. The differences in National Assessment for Educational Progress NAEP math scores between boys and girls nearly double from the 9-year-olds to the year-olds. At least one study has challenged the existence of the gender gap in mathematics.
In Janet Hyde and others published a study showing that male and female students did equally well on No Child Left Behind standardized tests that were administered in second through eleventh grades in ten states.
However, Hyde and her team did find gaps that favored males at the upper end of the achievement distribution and tried to examine gaps on more difficult test questions previous research has shown that males outperform females on more challenging items , but the tests they examined lacked adequately challenging items.
This raised questions about whether there is still a gender gap in math achievement. There is also a large discrepancy between the number of men and women working in STEM fields. Women have been, and continue to be, underrepresented in these fields. According to recent data, 55 percent of college students are females and 45 percent are males.
From until , the number of males enrolled in college increased by 18 percent, while the number of female students rose by 27 percent. The numbers of both men and women receiving a bachelor's degree have increased significantly, but the increasing rate of female college graduates exceeds the increasing rate for males.
A higher proportion of men
The achievement gap in the United States refers to the observed, persistent disparity in measures of educational performance among subgroups of U.S. students, especially groups defined by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ ethnicity and gender. The achievement gap can be observed on a variety of measures, including. The Latina/o students were exposed to more life stressors and had lower attendance and achievement than non-Latina/o students. Life stressors mediated the relationship between ethnicity and academic outcomes. Results deepen experts' understanding of the achievement gap, suggesting that newcomer immigrant. 22 Aug Often, “achievement gap” refers to racial disparities in academic achievement— the fact that students of color tend to lag behind their white peers in terms of school readiness, test scores, educational attainment, and grades. The income achievement gap, on the other hand, is the disparity in academic.