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We're paint a culture built on self-enhancement. I don't see what's to complain about. Bitcoin might be interested in Sidechain Elements. This results in certain calculate of transactions merkle to root same merkle root. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Now you're talking about canal whole different class of thing. Well, part of Libertarianism is opposite of egalitarianism.

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Don't be an absolutist. It allows them to obfuscate transactions on the wire by using one-time accounts so that other banks not involved in the transaction know who is transmitting what from looking at the blockchain -- while at the same time providing enough transparency and security that banks can independently validate transactions they were involved in. However, I also have no cause to care. Up until now, things stored in a database have always had a decent amount of probability they wouldn't stay there forever. I agree that jail should be avoided for non-violent criminals.

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Calculate whatever power you give to government to "set things right" and "ensure fairness" will be used in probably less than 10 years by someone else do canal something "unfair" and "corrupt". Banks, and everyone else, are always merkle to be greedy. All I'm saying is that it could go either way. It's not paint trust Gupie days ago. That's what we've done, we've trusted banks with our root savings and what-not bitcoin didn't do our due diligence.

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We believe in meritocracy, egalitarianism and equal opportunity disdain for all bad people after all. Not my field however I feel you have a mis-understanding. You are talking about a shared ledger system, then saying that bitcoin has no part of it. Bitcoin is the token of PoW. So all the miners confirm transactions on the blockchain and in turn are rewarded with bitcoins.

This keeps the miners doing their job, and the main reason the bitcoin ledge is immutable. If you remove the bitcoin from the ecosystem then it will be down to the banks to secure their own blockchain with their own mining pools at which point the banks control all the mining, you lose the trusted status of the ledger.

However if that token is only controlled by the banks are we not back right where we started? The only people interested in securing the banks blockchain will be the banks, unless they offer their customers mining equipment, but the day a bank shares its ability to mint value is the day I prove that well something unthinkable.

The banks blockchain will just become another private database that is not secured in the real world in anyway and in turn losses the status of an immutable ledge. Its a private blockchain, their is a usecase.

The its enougth for the banks to trust each other, it might not be to prove to 'the public' but within the private agreements of the banks it counts as trused. The problem is that you want a revolution and this is evolution. They never wanted to change it. For them it might just be about improving the verifiabilty compared to the current system.

They need not have broader aims then that and a blockchain between banks can help with that. This could count as collusion and anti-trust. What happens when a smaller bank that isn't a member of this chain tries to do business with the network? Do these smaller banks lose-out competitively by not being a member?

Who is the governing body approving access - the competition? Four million wrongful foreclosures in alone: That means four million families' homes illegally stolen from them.

Don't pretend this is some goofy hippie fuck-the-man thing. When someone commits that much theft, a rational person doesn't leave them alone with the silverware. The irony about the hate is that having a decentralized way to do things like this is actually going to help unseat some of the banks' powers. Animats days ago. There's a back-end bookkeeping system in finance which tracks who owns what. That's where blockchain technology applies. Banks can't do this themselves, because there's a mutual mistrust problem.

So there are all those clearinghouse companies, which maintain the databases. This is a great observation, I didn't realize that clearinghouses were a thing. John, have you thought about what other backend bookkeeping systems could benefit from using blockchains? MikeNomad days ago. So the solution is moving to a new method and process driven by the banks, and with the removal of third party oversight? If there is a system, it can, and eventually will, be gamed.

Sven7 days ago. I'll don't buy this BS about the block chain, when the power to verify it centralizes power in the hands of those that can afford the most computing resources. Being the people or group who can afford "the most" computing resources is not enough, at least as that expression is commonly used. Also, it's not true that only they would get the power to verify it; everyone can verify the transactions on the blockchain.

What they would gain is the ability to double-spend their Bitcoins, and not without getting noticed by the rest of the network. If they don't have miners or Bitcoin, then who is securing the ledger? A selected, privileged number of nodes within the system will validate and sign blocks themselves. That seems to leave them with the same problem where a single bank can lie and cause problems. That's what they have now. A third party clearing house presumably using a relational database that is the central authority on all intermediary transactions.

Creating a blockchain is about removing that third party and instead breaking the trust up between the participating banks. And they are masking it in this veil of complexity, when in reality it's very simple. Banks don't require pseudonymity. If you remove pseudonymity from the list of requirements you no longer need mining, you can just run any consensus protocol to agree on and cryptographically link pieces of information. That's a great point.

Whoever these R3 people are, I'm sure they'll rake in some good cash irrespective of whatever benefits are provided Sure, but if you're reaching consensus on a cryptographic chain of transactions, that's exactly what a blockchain is. Mining is not an integral feature. Mining is the core feature that allows Bitcoin to work without knowing all the parties. Reaching consensus and cryptographically protecting information is not a very hard problem if you know the parties.

These banks clearly disagree with you. It's not cryptographic protection of data. It's the cryptographic audit trail that's useful. No one can break the rules of the system except for validators, and everyone instantly knows when a validator breaks the rules so they can stop trusting them.

I meant integrity protection, i. Hash chains and trees are at least 35 years old. Ie if you know all players, you could store your transactions in git instead of the blockchain. There's a difference between knowing and trusting You'd still sign your transactions.

You only need to trust the players not to DoS or double spendand these things are easy to audit for. You still need to solve the origin of money problem.

Refer problems with proof-of-stake coins. Yes, but Bitcoin is a full system already designed for this exact purpose. The only real issue is the waste of proof-of-work, but that's proportional to the hashing power given to it; if the chain is private, a single server per bank would suffice. IkmoIkmo days ago. None of what you said makes any sense. This private banking database requires none of that and is the opposite of what bitcoin was designed for.

And the gigantic waste of proof-of-work is completely unnecessary, and forcing the use of it regardless by keeping a 'single server per bank' is insane, it's literally a waste of money.

Not only that but it doesn't even achieve anything you want as it creates a false sense of security, after all what stops a bank from simply having more than 1 server and blowing all the proof of work from anyone else out of the water and dictating the entire database? Well guess what, the exact same thing that obviates the need for a proof of work system in the first place. Bitcoin is the dumbest possible technology outside of the context for which it was designed, in which it appears to be the only viable technology and works incredibly well.

Running a private blockchain with a set bunch of gate keepers is simply ridiculous. Bitcoin is a well-tested shared ledger, with plenty of eyeballs trying to exploit and secure it. Does it make technical sense to run Bitcoin for a private ledger?

No, it does not, you're absolutely right. But does it make business sense to waste a few CPU cycles mining, compared to wasting probably hundreds of thousands of dollars developing custom software for this purpose, which will still be less tested and probably more insecure? I'd say it does. What is the point of doing any mining at all, if it is unnecessary?

Adds just extra complexity to the system. These bankers are idiots. The key advantage that the blockchain provides is distributed consensus-finding. It's the best known solution to the Byzantine generals problem to date.

Pseudonymity is besides the point. Paxos and Raft are arguably the best known solutions to the Byzantine Generals problem not bitcoin. They provide stronger guarantees Bitcoin which allows forks.

What Bitcoin provides that those algorithms do not specify is a cryptographically verified audit trail. However as some have mentioned here if you don't need the pseudonymity as these banks do not then you could add cryptographic auditing to one of those protocols. Bitcoin's proof of work is not a requirement in that case. DavidSJ days ago. I think it would be more accurate to say that what Bitcoin provides that Paxos and Raft do not is trust-free consensus.

The members of the Paxos parliament all trust that the others are properly following the protocol, but they still have to deal with all of the pathologies of an unreliable network. Bitcoin has to deal with unreliable networks and dishonest nodes who spend money multiple times.

It handles that, at the cost of huge computational overhead. Actually since Paxos is meant to solve the byzantine generals problem they don't necessarily trust that the others are properly following the protocol. But the algorithm guarantees that as long as no more than N others are dishonest you can still reach consensus. Bitcoin does the same where N's value differs but with far more wasteful computation and less strong guarantees.

Perhaps you're thinking of Byzantine Paxos not regular Paxos? I'll have to read up on that to determine its relevance to the double-spend problem.

One concern I'd have is how parliament membership is determined e. Another way to read this is that trust between banks has deteriorated to the point where they feel that they need a blockchain -- a decentralized shared ledger -- to verify certain transactions with each other. Because otherwise a nice centralized, shared ledger is much easier to build, analyze, maintain, and secure. Banks don't operate on trust -- they operate on checks and balances and intermediaries.

For example, when you spend your money using a Visa or MasterCard, the payment processor intermediary between your bank and the merchant's bank takes a cut for helping remove the need for trust from the transaction. Banks do operate on trust, which is actually how VISA and Mastercard were created because the trust became a problem https: RockyMcNuts days ago.

More to the point, they act on the basis of contracts enforced by state authority. Unless you can list here the "checks and balances and intermediaries" that failed during all that fake setting of LIBOR rates.

LIBOR doesn't demonstrate that banks rely on trust. None of the involved banks or brokers trusted that anyone else was actually being honest about LIBOR submissions or predictions. The reason it was so easy to falsify your bank's LIBOR submission was because they were essentially made up.

Submitters produced the number by talking to brokers and then making a decision. A blockchain wouldn't have made any difference. You'd put your submission on the blockchain, and you wouldn't be able to change it later if things didn't turn out how you liked, but you had made up the submission anyway. Nobody would ever be able to point to some number on the blockchain and say definitively that your reported LIBOR figure for today should have been X but in fact it was Y and therefore you're a crook, because the figures were never verified.

They'd only be able to say "There's no record, so you could easily have just made up the number," and you'd say "I did make it up, that's how you do it, everyone else made theirs up too," and that would pretty much be it.

The only way to catch someone being dishonest was to find records of employees talking about it; the Hayes case and others like it are based on the fact that bankers incriminated themselves by discussing the manipulation with each other.

By contrast, when banks transfer specific quantities of money, they absolutely are not relying on a trust-based system. If you produce internal records kept by your accountants that say I totally only sent Y, no bank would take your word for it under any circumstances. Similarly, if there was a mixup and some of my assets ended up with you by accident, my chances of convincing you that I should get them back are nonexistent if I don't have some outside system demonstrating that I'm not lying.

In real life, financial institutions rely on third-party businesses to be that "outside system. I wouldn't need to trust you, the transaction would be recorded on our blockchain, and if either of us thought the other could falsify the blockchain we wouldn't have agreed to use it. If the blockchain says I really didn't send enough money, I'll probably say something about a technical glitch and give you the cash while I grumble about how much I hate technology.

Neither of us have to trust each other any more than we already don't, and we don't have to involve some kind of trust or clearing business.

The key check on Libor was that it took a pretty big conspiracy to fix it. There were approx 16 banks submitting numbers, and the process was to rank those numbers, drop the top 4 and bottom 4, then average the rest.

And these numbers are quoted in hundredths of a percent. So, yes there was trust, but it was of the institutions in their people. They did not expect that such a big conspiracy could be mounted, for so long, without anyone calling foul. And there is a balance, too. The biggest market is "interbank", i. On any given day, some banks will be net payers of Libor and some will be net receivers. So, as institutions, they aren't all going to lie in the same direction. This doesn't help you if the lying is done by individuals, ignoring the impact on their own institution, encouraged by things like free coffee.

I think that's very much overreading it. And then saying, "Well, let's hedge our bets and put a tiny amount of money into learning more about this just in case it really does matter. Banks working together is a scary idea. Feast your eyes, ladies and gents. What you are witnessing is the formation of a cartel. Banks are already working together in a lot of fields. That's just three examples I know but i'm sure you can find a lot of them.

There were 25, different banks that owned Mastercard? Not come across that term before. Kalium days ago. How would you prefer technical standards be established? It's not just technical though. These standards mandate that each network hop include a holding delay measured in tens of hours. From light speed to days and why? Because it's a cash cow they'd be insane to mess with. NeutronBoy days ago. Bike-shedding on mailing lists has produced some I suspect that this could be an effort to do something like the Financial Services Roundtable.

For those who don't know Szabo is as close to the anonymous founder of Bitcoin as it is possible to get. If banks want benefits of blockchains they must go permissionless https: It makes sense what Sa A common standard 2. Global openness Surely they can build their own walled garden, but I think they're missing the point with this. IMO they should just push for an open standard and use private ledger contracts on top of Ethereum, but I doubt they'll go this way. Most likely they'll just fork and run with it.

What's the iot reference for? How does putting Bitcoin implementations into random pieces of plastic like a "smart cup" figure into your analysis at all?

If you've been following the crypto 2. For instance, washing machines or fridges that detect that are running low on X and automatically place an order for delivery. I'm just trying to reflect that these 9 big guys could be making a short-termed shortsightedness mistake trying to protect their business placing a fence. As Szabo said, it's the moment to be more open. Szabo is not Satoshi. Szabo wouldn't create a digital money system with an economic model he fundamentally disagrees with.

Doesn't some of the blockchains security come from having a large number of players maintaining the chain? Isn't there a vulnerability that depends on someone taking over a large enough percentage of the infrastructure?

Wouldn't having a handful of entities doing the majority of the transactions allow them to commit fraud, or alter the ledger?

This is basically the path you go down when you start to consider 'non-bitcoin' blockchains. Sure, you can do it, but if you want security, you go where the hashing power is. Sidechains would be a great way to address this. It's important to remember how early days Bitcoin is, and cryptography and blockchains in general. They're still well within a research phase; it's hard to say what sort of solution they'll come up with. Maximizing hashing power is only needed in a public blockchain.

If the pool is closed, you can force each node to provide a fixed power, and monitor the total power. No hashpower is required. If you have a fixed pool of validators, just rotate through the validators to pick who creates the next block. At that point, why do you need blocks? Couldn't each transaction just be signed by a certain percentage of validators? Bitcoin's security is not due to hash power alone, it is due to the decentralization of that hash power.

I was talking to one of the bitcoin core devs and his opinion was that purely in terms of power consumed, litecoin could be more secure than bitcoin. Bitcoin certainly has the network effect in terms of usage going for it. If only trustworthy entities are part of the network, this isn't much of a problem. No large financial institution will launch an attack against their own network. I think there's a difference between rigging numbers and launching an attack on the network.

All that it would happen is that the other peers would detect the increase on hashing power and shut down the nodes. The problem with a public blockchain is that you don't know who is hashing. On a private network, you can tell each node to only hash at a certain rate, and monitor the total rate to detect cheats.

Maybe the attack will be external then? Thieves, Hackers, Foreign govs They will if they think they can make money from doing so. If they do end up using something like Ethereum, the network would be the same network that everyone uses, so the number of users would hopefully be much larger than, i. Once that has been agreed on, Rutter said, the first use of the technology might be the issuance of commercial paper on the blockchain.

Can anyone speculate on why they would begin to issue commercial paper? Probably because they're very short term forms of debt, so if the system has issues it doesn't exist in for 10 years or however long the instrument lasts.

Straightforward cash based product without too many complications. Stock split, merge, spin off, for instance. Banks don't always act in citizen's best interest. Don't forget about the cartel money laundering: The Drug War doesn't have a sound moral basis, so I'm okay that the banks were undermining western governments in the interest of free trade. I say this as someone who used to work in drug policy reform and strongly opposes the drug war: Providing money to cartels isn't exactly a noble proposition either.

Banks that do that really do have blood on their hands. Between , over , people died incredibly gruesome deaths in Mexico alone since at the hands of these cartels[0]. I'm not going to defend the drug war, but I'm not going to defend banks that willingly funnel money to them either.

And I'm not going to claim that providing money to cartels actually undermines the drug war, in any meaningful sense. The cartels are, ironically, the largest profiteers of the drug war, right alongside the LEOs and correctional facilities that enforce drug laws. Pumping money into the pockets of the drug cartels only further entrenches the current system; it does not provide pressure to dismantle it.

There are plenty of great ways to work actively to end the drug war. Funding drug cartels or enabling their business operations is not one of them. I am pretty interested in the drug war - just finished el narco and chasing the scream: I would disagree with this sentiment.

First, what Mexico wants has unfortunately very little connection to what the US will actually do, and it's the US's drug policy that matters here. Second, this is like saying that the arrests and drug-related violence in the US creates pressure for legalization.

It may in a way, because it raises the stakes, but that's not necessary to create pressure for change. And it's a rather horrible way to do so, because it involves putting people's lives at even more risk in the meantime.

On top of that, it also further empowers the people who profit off of the status quo, providing them with even more money and therefore power and influence to maintain the status quo. For comparison, it's a good thing that police violence has gotten attention recently, which may ultimately lead to substantial reform. But that's not to say that facilitating and profiting off of! We can argue about whether the connection is nonexistent or simply 'very weak', but my point remains that it's hard to defend a profit-hungry bank funneling money into the hands of violent murders so they can profit off of more murders, all on the grounds that it will eventually translate into fewer murders later on.

Especially when there are much more compelling ways of addressing the issue directly and immediately. Big banks getting away with funneling money to cartels is the heart of why the drug war is immoral!! The enemy of your enemy is not necessarily your friend. If you believe the statement you wrote above then you are a gullible person. Someone sold you something if you think free trade is a beneficial condition worth striving for.

It benefits a handful of major corporations at the expense of the populace. Would love to hear more in detail about how free trade hurts the population at large. I'm quite certain that's sarcasm. If it were actually true you'd have already googled the subject and be quietly reading right now.

It's put downward pressure on wages, and exacerbated America's income gap. Market efficiencies created by globalization also have a tendency to drive all but the largest players out of any given market. Surely you don't claim lowered wages and pressure on small to medium sized businesses to try to compete on a global scale are in any way beneficial to the larger populace?

You don't honestly believe having access to cheap goods is more beneficial than plentiful, well-paying jobs? I wasn't being sarcastic, I wanted to hear your reasoning so I could attempt a rebuttal and here it is: With respect to your argument, I would consider Mexicans and Canadians to be part of the 'greater population' I was referring to.

Globalization is great if you're a Chinese peasant who can now earn a meal in an hour at the factory instead of 12h of subsistence farming. Overall I'm pretty sure it's a net positive to humanity at the expense of the American lower-middle class. Retra days ago. I don't have a stake in this discussion either way, but it seems to me that you're not quantifying the tradeoffs properly not that I expect you to, really.

It could very well be the case that the improved earnings of that Chinese peasant are vastly disproportionate to the loss experienced by the factory worker in Detroit. The middle-man transferring the money from one market to the other could be pocketing most of it, leaving the majority of people worse of and in a far weaker political position.

And while it may seem to be a net positive to humanity, that could very easily be a relativistic perspective that breaks down in the long term. So, do you believe that there should be no trade allowed between countries at all?

What is the right amount of trade, and how did you determine what that is? Is it possible that your determination is wrong? Of course it's possible that I'm wrong. All I'm saying is that it could go either way. Converting high-quality work for few in exchange for low quality work for many is not an inherently valuable proposition.

Because it often creates extremely-high-quality work for a very few. You need more information to determine if it is the right thing to do. If you believe that trade hurts workers, shouldn't we also cut off trade between the states? I think it's hard to deny that in general free trade produces net benefits. If it didn't, then we would presumably each make all of our own stuff and never trade.

I could well believe that a particular trade deal has problems or is even net bad, and I don't have a strong opinion on NAFTA. I said unregulated trade hurts workers, not all trade. Stating unregulated trade hurts workers isn't a "belief". It's not like it's a faith-based assertion lacking any real world evidence to support it.

Trade tarrifs have been used as a revenue stream for the federal government and as a protective measure for domestic industry since the s. The heart of the issue is working class humans benefit from a certain level of market inefficiency. Having many small local concerns engaged in a a particular market segment is inefficient as each has to capitalize equipment and labor force to do essentially the same thing.

When the market "optimizes" one of two things happen, wages in that market segment make a run for the bottom, and smaller concerns either consolidate through a series of mergers and acquisitions or they are squeezed out of the market. What you're arguing in favor of is one of the major market forces that is driving income inequality in the US. Are you proposing that trickle down economics actually work? I am not proposing that trickle-down economics work. Again, if you believe that unregulated trade hurts workers, shouldn't we stop trade between the US states?

My guess is no. Because it's not like your proposing an optimum economy size for maximum worker friendliness. You're just opposing a kind of change from the status quo. I agree that too much industry consolidation is a problem for workers. But I don't think that's a problem of trade. That's a problem that comes whenever you a increase disparity in power between workers and employers and b decrease opportunity to switch to a different employer.

If we had a situation where no countries traded but each country allowed monopolies to form, workers would be screwed. If, on the other hand, we have free trade but vigorous enforcement of anti-trust and merger review, I think workers can do pretty well.

I also agree that increasing trade can shift what industries do well in particular locales, which is good for some workers but bad for others. As an example, look at the American auto industry. As a Michigander, I know how devastating the rise of import cars was. But honestly, that industry needed some devastation. They produced low-quality, low-reliability products and then milked consumers on repairs and flim-flam sales techniques. They did provide jobs, but often pretty terrible ones.

And none of this was necessary; it's just that consolidation which, remember, happened without trade made a cozy oligopoly, leaving management to focus on exploitation. If you want to hear the costs of your protectionist approach, listen to this TAL episode: Listen to the pain in the GM workers' voices. Listen to the change that came from working for one of those foreign companies.

And then tell me again of how workers benefit from economic inefficiency. We can't even get political consensus in this country that healthcare is a basic human right that everyone should have free and equal access to and you're proposing that a massive program of worker reeducation and pensioning is credibly possible? I parse this as you saying "Free Trade is great if you live in a tiny socialist country with sufficient budgetary reserves to afford continuous retraining of workers and the political will to make that investment in labor force.

It's obvious in the sense that free trade advocates regularly say this should be part of what happens. And actually, it's what happens in the US. Instead, the ledger is broken up into blocks: Every block includes a reference to the block that came before it, and you can follow the links backward from the most recent block to the very first block, when bitcoin creator Satoshi Nakamoto conjured the first bitcoins into existence.

Bitcoin hash explorer one 10 minutes miners add a new block, growing the chain like an expanding pearl necklace. Generally speaking, every bitcoin miner has a copy of the entire block chain on her computer. If she shuts her computer down and stops mining for a while, when she starts back up, her machine will send a message to other miners requesting the blocks that were created in her absence.

No one person or computer has bitcoin hash explorer one for these block chain updates; no miner has special status. The updates, like the authentication of new blocks, are provided by the network of bitcoin miners at large. Bitcoin also relies on cryptography. The computational problem is different for every block in the chain, and it involves a particular kind of algorithm called a hash function.

Like any function, a cryptographic hash function takes an input—a string of numbers and letters—and produces an output. But there are three things that set cryptographic hash functions apart: The output is a predetermined length, regardless of the input.

The hash function that bitcoin relies on—called SHA, and developed by the US National Security Agency—always produces a string that is 64 characters long. Think of it like mixing paint. But with hashes, a slight variation in the input results in a completely different output: The proof-of-work problem that miners have to solve involves taking a hash of the contents of the block that they are working on—all of the transactions, some meta-data like a timestampand go here reference to the previous source a random number called a nonce.

Their goal is to find a hash that has at least a certain number of leading zeroes. More leading zeroes means fewer possible solutions, and more time required to solve the problem. Every 2, blocks roughly two weeksthat difficulty is reset. If it took miners less than 10 minutes on average to solve those 2, blocks, then the difficulty is automatically increased.

If it took longer, then the difficulty is decreased. Miners search for an acceptable hash by choosing a nonce, running the hash function, and checking.

When a miner is finally lucky enough to find a nonce that works, and wins the block, that nonce gets appended to the end of the block, along with the resulting hash.

So how does this protect bitcoin from fraud? Her first step would be to go in and change the record for that transaction. Then, because she had modified the block, she bitcoin hash explorer one have to solve a new proof-of-work problem—find a new nonce—and do all of that computational work, all over again. Again, due to the unpredictable nature of hash functions, making the slightest change to the original block means starting the proof of work from scratch.

But unless the hacker has more computing power at her disposal than all other bitcoin miners combined, she could never catch up. She would always be at least six blocks behind, and her alternative chain would obviously be a counterfeit.

Answers that don't include explanations may be removed. This may be a good introduction. Ripple may be using Merkle tree but I am not sure: The merkle root is important for mining. On the wiki there is a mistake for the previous hash:. First of all, all values here are in little endian notation, so you have to ready byte per byte from right to left remember one byte are TWO characters. To compare the values, just have a look at: The merkle root is implicitly used by the bitcoin blockchain!

It playes an important role when it comes into mining! The Merkle Root, as I understand it, is basically a hash of many hashes Good example here - to create a Merkle Root you must start by taking a double SHA hash of the byte streams of the transactions in the block. However, what this data is the byte streams , what it looks like, and where it comes from remains a mystery to me. By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service. Questions Tags Users Badges Unanswered.

Bitcoin Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for Bitcoin crypto-currency enthusiasts. Join them; it only takes a minute: Here's how it works: Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. What is the Merkle root?

The Bitcoin wiki Vocabulary article explains why the Merkle root exists: Steven Roose 8, 7 27 Pi Delport 4. David Ogren 2, 1 11 A block header does not include the transaction ids from the transactions in the block, does it? So basically the idea of the last part of the quote will only work if txid's were included in the block headers.

It reads "block header and merkle tree". That makes more sense. What if we do not know the block of the transaction. In that case are we require to iterate through all blocks on the block chain? Geremia 1, 16 To verify that a transaction: How do we know the exact location of Hk on the Merkle Tree? Avatar To construct Merkle paths from scratch requires knowing all the transactions.

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merkle root. Assuming no double-SHA collisions, this will detect all. known ways of changing the transactions without affecting the merkle. root. */. /* This implements a constant-space merkle root/path calculator, limited to 2^32 leaves. */. static void MerkleComputation(const std::vector& leaves, uint* proot. Hey, I've read a lot but there still are questions for writing my own (test-)miner Smiley I guess I know how to get all data for calculation a block except for how to ' calculate' the merkle root. I far as I understand I first have to get all recent transactions. Let's say these are only four with the hashes 1, 2, 3 and 4 (I. improving scalability of blockchains in general, and Bitcoin in particular, for some time. These debates have been Painting a broad design space for scalable blockchains. Our findings lead us to the position that .. a cryptographic digest ( e.g., Merkle-tree root) of this view along with a proof of its correctness. By relying on.

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